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THE 



COURTS OF EUROPE 



AT THE CLOSE 



OF THE 



LAST CENTURY, 



HV THE LATE 



HENRY SWINBURNE, ESQ. 

ALTHor. OF '■ TltAVELS IN SPAIN, ITALY," iSlt. 
EDITED 

BY CHARLES WHITE, ESQ. 

AUTHOR OF " THE bELGIC REVOLUTION," &.C. 

IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOL. 11. 

LONDON: 

HENRY COLBURN, PUBLISHER, 
GREAT MARLBOROUGH STREET. 

MDCCCXLI. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED BY IBOTbUN AND PALiUER, SAVOY STREET, STRAND. 



LETTERS 



FROM THE 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, VIENNA, &c. 



July 16. 
The Venetian senator, Prince Rezzonico, dined 
with me at Mr. Wilkes's fetite maison at Ken- 
sington Gore, a most elegant box, with 
Messrs Woronzow and Barthelemy, and Stuart, 
the author of the History of Scotland, or Mary 
Queen of Scots, and compiler of the English 
review. In his 459th page of last month, he 
tells us of all the wonderful qualities requisite 
to make an historian, viz. " It is the gift of 
God ; a man must be born an historian as well as 
a poet ; it was bestowed in an eminent degree 
upon Livy and Tacitus, among the ancients, 

VOL. II. B 



2 LETTERS FROM THE 

upon Bossuet and Vertot, among the moderns, 
and npon Stuart and Logan, among the living- 
historians !" 

N. B. Loo:an is his colleao;ue, and author of 
Elements of the Philosophy of History. 

I have had a visit from the famous Count 
Cagliostro, who harangued us for three hours in 
bad French, taken from the Italian, entirely about 
himself and his sufferings; sometimes entertain- 
ing, generally tedious, and like a charlatan ; but 
better than I expected from the accounts I had 
received. He is a little brown man, with an 
ignoble face, good eyes, high forehead, and bald . 
Nothing Jewish. He boasts of his wealth and 
disinterestedness, and talks of himself in the third 
person — " Le Comte de Cagliostro." He pro- 
mises in six months to publish, gratis, a full ac- 
count of his life, in English, French, and Ita- 
lian, in six octavo volumes — a dreadful threat.* 

* The real name of this celebrated charlatan, whose 
pretended knowledge of magic and magnetism gained for 
him so great an influence at one period, was Joseph 
Balsamo. He was of low extraction, and born at Palermo 
in 1743. He contrived to marry one of the most beautiful 
women in Italy, named Lorenza Feliciani, who to a good 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 3 

It is supposed the Duke of Rutland and Mr. 
Pitt are both favourable to the Catholics. The 
latter is said to be religiously inclined. A person 
in office told Wraxall an anecdote which he 
tliouo-ht illustrative of the different ministers. 
When, in 1783, some concession from Russia 
arrived, which was very unexpected, but about 
which they were extremely anxious, (I believe 
some assistance the empress agreed to give with 
regard to her fleet,) this person had to deliver the 
intelligence. On hearing it, Pitt's exclamation 
was, " Thank God !" Rose said, " No, has she 
indeed !" and Lord Caermarthen, " The devil 
she has !" 

Lord George Gordon has been about, trying 
to excite riots, and is outlawed from the parish of 
Marylebone. 

We dine often with my cousin, Sir Harry 
Englefield, and his mother, who have a pleasant 
house, and draw together les beaux esprits. 
Wraxall, Sloane, Isted, Knight, Lady Cadogan, 
Lady Mary and Mr. Churchill, Horace Walpole, 

family added a considerable property. Through her aid he 
ended by making a large fortune. 

B 2 



LKTTERS FROM THE 



and tlje Misses Berry, are tlie general society 
there. Sir Harry has an unpleasant way of 
haranguing, and declares he does everything by 
the rule " of thumb.''' I have not yet been able 
to ascertain what he means by that expression ; 
something very scientific I make no doubt, but 
beyond my comprehension.* 



August 2. 

The king lias been stabbed, but not danger- 
ously, as he got into his carriage, by Margaret Ni- 
cholson, a mad woman. She was seized imme- 
diately, but he insisted upon her not having any 
further punishment than being conveyed to Bed- 
lam. " She must be mad, she must be mad," 
he repeated, " to want to kill me." I presume 
Louis Quinze did not feel the same certainty of 

* Sir Harry, being a great antiquarian, alluded probably 
to the custom of sculptors, who are in the habit of passing 
the thumb nail over the surface of their works, in order 
to detect inequalities. I remember in later years to have 
seen Sir Harry, then quite blind, descanting upon the 
beauties of his splendid collection of Etruscan vases, and 
following the contours of the figures by the aid of his thumb. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 5 

madness in a similar case, when Daniicn vas 
drawn asunder by four horses. * 



TO SIR EDWARD SWINBURNE. 

Paris, Sept. 17, 1786. 

Dear Brother, 
We arrived here safe and well, after staying 
a week in Normandy. Our passage from Bright- 
helmstone was pleasant enough, though nota short 
one, having lasted above fourteen hours. Tiie 
custom-house officers were easy and indulgent, 
and the journey, without exception, the most de- 
lightful that can be made in France. Yet, in 
spite of all these advantages, I do not think I 
shall ever go the Dieppe way again. There is 

* Robert Francois Daniien, who attempted to assassi- 
nate Louis XV. on the 4th of January, 1757, was the son 
of a porter at Arras, and a man of such bad character 
that he went by the name of Robert le Diable. The tor- 
tures which this wretch endured, in order to make him 
confess his motives and accomplices, exceed all belief. His 
flesh was torn to pieces with red-hot pincers. Boiling oil 
and lead were thrown upon the wounds ; his limbs were cut 
off in detail, and he did not expire until the last was hacked 
from his body. 



6 LETTERS FROM THE 

no harbour on the English side, and one must 
submit to be tossed about in a boat, for the space 
oftwo miles going or coming ; with the chance 
of being perhaps thirty or forty hours beating 
across the Channel. 

I have taken a campagne at Le Menil, about 
a league north of St. Germain, just above Mai- 
sons. The house is well furnished, with twenty 
acres of pleasure and kitchen garden, and all 
possible conveniences. There is a door that 
opens into the forest, and the finest view imagin- 
able. We shall remove to it the first week in 
October, but mean to have a small pied a terre 
at Paris, where we may come for pleasure or bu- 
siness. 

This city is not quite such a desert at this 
time of the year as London, yet it is ten to one 
you do not find the person you want in town. 
The Spectacles are in a very poor plight, both as 
to actors and compositions. 

The improvements made and making in the 
buildings are astonishing, though not always in 
the chastest taste. Thirty millions are just bor- 
rowed for the purpose of building a new bridge 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 7 

at the Palais Bourbon, making a new quay, and 
demolishing the houses on the bridges. 

I find the environs more agreeable than ever I 
did, as I have horses here, and ride out fre- 
quently. On foot, or in a carriage, is quite ano- 
ther thing, for the distance one can reach is not 
sufficient to get out of dirt and dust. 

I have not been at court yet, as the king is at 
Compiegne, and the queen lives retired at Tri- 
anon ; but I shall be presented before the voyage 
de Fontainbleau, and have already been at Ver- 
sailles to deliver my letters, and dined with Mr. 
Eden, our minister for the commercial treaty. 
There are English here, but none of any note, or 
of my acquaintance. 

I have been with M. de la Borde, to see Mon- 
sieur Vaillant's collection of stuffed African 
birds. He travelled among the Hottentots, and 
has brought home the skin of a cameleopard, 
which is fawn colour, with white crosses. 

Dupaty has got into a scrape with the parlia- 
ment, for attacking the criminal jurisprudence 
in general, on account of three men condemned 
to the wheel, who are asserted by him to be in- 



LETTERS FROM THE 



nocent. This affair will come on after the vaca- 
tion, and in the mean while gives him a great 
deal of trouble and anxiety. 



[Mr. Swinburne here continues his corres- 
pondence in the form of a diary.] 



Oct. 21st. Arrived at Fontainbleau, by invi- 
tation. 

22d. Was presented to the Princesse de Lam- 
balle, and supped there. 

23d. Dined at the Marquis de Talaru's, pre- 
mier maitre d'hotel de la Reine. 

24th. Went out boar-hunting with the king ; 
uniform, blue and crimson, velvet cuffs, with 
broad gold and silver lace. There was a little 
good galloping. The forest is so well opened, 
and the woods so well cleared, that there is no- 
where any danger except among the rocks and 
crags. The parade of himting is very great. 

Dined at Mr. Eden's, and went to the court 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 9 

theatre, where the admission is gratis. All 
foreigners are seated sideways, on benches behind 
the orchestra, on account of the king's chair, 
which is placed in the middle of the pit, and 
nobody must turn their back to it. Before us 
sat the ambassadors, and a bench is left for 
princes of the blood. Opposite to us sat, on simi- 
lar forms, the ladies of easy virtue of Paris ! 
When there is an abundance of foreigners, one 
is forced to push and run for places, in a very 
disagreeable manner, as there are, in fact, only 
sixteen places. 

The introducteur came to the salle des am- 
bassadeurs, where we were all assembled, and 
ushered the foreigners to their seats some time 
before the play began ; he- then fetched the corps 
diplomatique. The queen sat in her box, sup- 
posed to be incog., as was the king, high up op- 
posite. Monsieur representoit, and when he en- 
tered the piece began. The spectacle was very 
fine, especially the dances and decorations. 
The music was not very good. Each new opera 
acted at Fontainbleau costs the king one hundred 
and fifty thousand francs. This theatre is 



10 LETTERS FROM THE 

awkwardly built for seeing, being a long paralle- 
logram ; and it is not well lighted. 

•25th. Went to a boar-hunt with the Comte 
d'Artois. The uniform is green, crimson and 
gold. The queen came in a caleche and six, with 
her ladies in other carriages ; the Princesse de 
Lamballe on horseback. We found in the 
thickets above Melun, and ran very hard across 
the plain and heath — an excellent hunt. The 
boar attempted to take to the forest, but the 
dogs pressed so hard that he had not time to 
break through the trellice, and so ran along it to 
the first gate, passing close to the queen's car- 
riage. Nothing could be finer than this scene ; 
the day bright and warm, and everything beau- 
tifully set off by the presence of so magnificent a 
company of hunters. After the boar got into the 
forest, he was so frequentl}^ headed, that he only 
hopped from square to square, till at last he was 
seized and brought down by the dogs, and shot 
by the Comte d'Artois. The latter part of the 
hunt was not very amusing. 

26th. Dined at the Comte de Vergennes, mi- 
nister des affaires etrangeres, with most of the 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 11 

corps diplomatique. Then to the new opera of 
Phedre. Supped with the Baron de Breteuil, 
ministre des affaires interieures. His daughter, 
Madame de Matignon, did the honours. 
Those of the corps diplomatique whom I met 
there were the Comte de Mercy (Imperial) 
very starched ; Suraapis, (Sardinian) ; Staal, 
(Swedish); Timolin, (Russian,) who is ruining 
himself in his old days with Madame Albert ; 
Suffrein, (Malta,) a distinguished admiral, very 
fat, with a good-natured face ; Goltz, (Prussian,) 
very stupid ; and Blome, (Danish,) very dirty. 

I hunted this morning with the Duke de 
Bourbon. 

27th. Hunted with the Marquis de Polignac — 
too many stags, and no sport. Dined with M. 
de Talaru, and supped at the Marechal de Se- 
gur's, ministre de la guerre. His son is envoy 
at Petersburg. His wife, whom he left behind, 
is a most charming little woman. 

28th. Boar-hunt with the Comte d'Artois ; no 
good running. Dined at Eden's; supped at the 
Marechal de Castries, ministre de la marine. 
He is extremely polite and attentive. 



12 LETTERS FROM THE 

29th. At court, dined at the Comte de Ver- 
gennes ; supped at the Princesse de Lamballe's. 
The queen, Monsieur and Madame, Comte and 
Comtesse d'Artois, came after supper, and played 
at cards sans facon. Monsieur is in c'lcesheatura 
with Madame de Balbi, quite al'Italienne.* This 
is the only thing of the kind I saw at court, 
where everything is de la dernier e decence. 

The Comte d'Artois plays deep at quinze and 
whist ; he has lost much, and on that account 
hazard is forbidden. The games in use here are 
billiards, trictrac, quinze, whist, reversi, and 
trente et quarante, which concludes the night. 
At the jeu de la reine, which is held from seven 
till nine on Sundays and Thursdays, all the court 
comes, to crowd a room too small for such an 
assembly. A lotto table is formed, of ladies in 

* A daughter of Count Caumont de la Force, who mar- 
ried Count Armand de Balbi, of an illustrious Genoese fa- 
mily. She was " danic d'atours^' to Madame. Her beauty, 
which had been remarkable, Avas disfigured by the small-pox, 
but this in no degree tempered the affection of Monsieur, 
(Louis XVIII.,) whom she accompanied to Coblentz. Their 
intimacy did not terminate until the restoration. I believe 
she fell a victim to the cholera in 1834. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 13 

hoops, for tlie amusement of Madame. Other 
small parties are made in the corners. The king's 
brothers play whist ; the queen plays trictrac in a 
window, but she is continually staring about, talk- 
ing, and laughing. Her voice is not musical ; her 
size of the fullest: she is very fat, and her features 
begin to be strongly marked. Madame d'Artois 
looks like a starved witch. At the end, the queen 
rises and speaks to the ladies ; all play ceases, 
and away she walks to supper at Madame's, 
where the royal family always meet to sup, 
unless the king has a supper in his cabinet. 

The courtiers meet daily at VCEW de Bceuf 
about nine, and then crowd the king's bedcham- 
ber a moment before supper. If he has a souper 
de cabinet, a valet de chambre comes out with a 
list of twelve names in the king's own hand- 
writing, which he calls over, and the favoured 
ones go in. 

The king walks out early, every morning, 
in a great-coat. He is very much attached to 
his wife. The Due de Fronsac, son of the Mare- 
chal de Richelieu, kept the little Zaccari, of the 
opera. One night he heard the king, who sel- 



14 LETTERS FROM THE 

(lorn takes notice of anything, praise her very 
much. This raised ideas in his head of making 
lier mistress to his majesty, and thereby build- 
ing favour and power for himself. In pursuance 
of this scheme, he, as gentleman of the bedcham- 
ber, contrived to place her in the king's way, and 
as H. M. passed, said, "Xa voila, sire, la petite 
Zaccari." Louis turned to him with scorn, and 
exclaimed, AUez, Fronsac! Von voit hien de qui 
vous etes Jils."* 

The Comte d'Artois pretends to know a great 
deal of the history of France, and the other day, 
to please him, the Duchesse de Cosse asked him 
if he could inform her who was the last Comte 
d'Artois. " Surementje lesais" said he ; " c'etait 
Robert sans peur,filsde Richard le diable." 

30th. Hunted with the king. The Marquis de 
Tourzel was run away with, and had his skull 
fractured in the woods. 

31st. Walked for some hours, and took a view 
of the valley of Fontainbleau ; supped with the 
Marechal de Seour. 

o 

* The Count de Fronsac was son to the celebrated Mare- 
chal de Richelieu. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 15 

Dec. 26. I have spent a week in Paris, and 
had some pleasant reunions. A splendid dinner 
at Laborde's {Garde du tresor,) with much com- 
pany. The most recherckee cMre I ever saw. 
I was introduced by the Duke of Dorset to the 
Marechal de Noailles. An evening at Madame 
de la Marck's, whose apartments at the Tuileries 
are magnificent. 

Feb. 6th, 1787, went to Paris; spent the day 
at Abbe Tersan's, consulting books on garden- 
ing, and looking over prints. 

7th. To Versailles for the queen's ball. The 
salle de bal is very elegantly fitted up, but the 
colonnade is massive and gloomy ; it hides the 
boxes and company too much. The area for 
dancing is too low, and the dancers are seen to 
great disadvantage. The men were plainly 
dressed ; some even appeared in mourning. All 
that danced wore large hats with white plumes, 
very unbecoming. The assembly was full, but by 
no means brilliant in dress ; indeed, the ladies 
who did not dance seemed to me quite en dtsha- 
bille. 

The kino^ walked about and talked to several 



16 LE1TERS FllOIM THE 

people, without ever sitting down. The queen 
played at trictrac in the ball-room. There was 
no gaiety. Madame de Polignac, who was 
dressed like a chambermaid, came long after the 
queen, handed by the Comte d'Artois. The 
queen whispered to her for a long time, but the 
duchess did not remain near her, and passed 
most of the night looking over the Comte 
d'Artois, who was playing at whist. The supper 
was good and well conducted, in a large hall, 
where every one forms his own party to fill a 
table, after which all is cleared away, and afresh 
supper served to another set. 

The queen hates orange-colour, and has de- 
clared that she will receive no one who ap- 
proaches her with that colour ; for which reason 
no lady goes to Versailles with orange-coloured 
ribbons, although they are very common at 
Paris. 

Lately the Due de Normandie being taken 
suddenly ill, Madame de Polignac called in the 
physicians, who ordered leeches. She did not 
tell the queen, who was at that time in a critical 
state of health, two months after her last con- 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 17 

finement, but told the king, who approved. The 
leeches were applied with great medical appara- 
tus, when by chance the queen came into the 
room, and saw her child covered with blood, sur- 
rounded by physicians, surgeons, and attendants. 
On learning the cause, she fell into the most 
violent fury, and vented her anger without re- 
serve on Madame de Polignac. Madame de 
P. stood unmoved, after having in vain at- 
tempted to justify herself At length she left 
the room, and returned with a cup and saucer, 
stirring some sugar in it, and offered it to the 
queen, saying, " Your majesty had better drink 
off this orange-flower water." Tlie queen drank 
it, and was silent ; but twenty-four hours passed 
in the quarrel, until at last the queen made it up 
with her. 

When Madame de Polignac gave up the Dau- 
phin to the Due d'Harcourt, it was remarked 
that the child never showed the least concern on 
parting from her, not even so much as to take, 
leave of her. 

13th. M. de Vergennes died this morning. 
He was the first French minister that received 

VOL. 11. c 



18 LETTERS FROM THE 

presents from foreign courts on the conclusion of 
treaties. A cunning fellow ! for he persuaded 
the king that it was to his honour, as it proved 
how much the whole world approved of the 
minister his majesty had chosen. 

14th. Went to Versailles, dined with the 
d'Osmonds, and then to the queen's ball. 

March 6th. Took Mrs. S. to Versailles, to wait 
upon the queen b}'^ appointment. Dined at Ma- 
dame de Talaru^s, and returned at night. 

16th. The Duke of Orleans ran a deer into 
Paris, and killed it in the Rue Royale, Place 
Louis XV. 

20th. Went to see the queen hunt roebuck in 
the Bois de Boulogne ; a heavenly day, and gay 
sight; innumerable horsemen, whiskeys and ca- 
leches, but no sport. 

I visited the Comtesse d'Albanie, relict of the 
Pretender, and was introduced to her by d'Han- 
carville. 

April 2d. Rode toward Poiss}'. There is a 
beautiful point of view up and down the river, 
from a hill beyond it. The ruined tower of Bel- 
mont has a fine prospect. It is a charming 



COURrS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 19 

tract of country. On returning, I overtook 
Madame d'Osmond, bewildered in the forest, 
where her coach had stuck fast in the sand, as 
she was coming to spend a week with us at 
Menil. 

The Archbishop of Narbonne (Dillon) was 
conversing with the controleur-general, Calonne, 
on the deficit in the finances, which is now the 
great subject of discourse and surmises, and he 
expressed a desire to know when and how this 
deficit was to be prevented for the future. Calonne, 
very cross at being pressed on this subject, said 
he could not tell, but that it was no such mighty 
matter if the king remained in debt a few years 
longer ; " for who is there that is not in debt ?" 
said he ; " there is scarcely a nobleman who is 
not overwhelmed with a load of it. Et vous- 
meme, Monseigneur, vous devez plus que voun netes 
grosJ" " Pour vous. Monsieur de Calonne,' 
replied the prelate, " vous deviez, mais vous ne 
devez plus." 

8th. Calonne turned out of office. Paid a visit 
at the Val, and found the Marechal de Beau- 
veau at home. 

c 2 



20 LETTERS FROM THE 

17th. M. Necker exiled twenty-one leagues 
from Paris. He is allowed to stay at Marolles 
till further orders, with his wife. Calonne is ex- 
iled sixty leagues off. There is a vast scene of 
iniquity laid open. He had paid to the Comte 
d'Artois one hundred and seven millions, which 
was to be from thence divided among the gang ; 
and if the king found it out and complained, his 
brother was to declare that he would replace it 
hereafter, but at present it was necessary to patch 
up his affairs, and prevent an eclat. This prince, 
who has three millions a year, has for many 
years spent twenty-one millions yearly. The 
seizure of the papers of his fugitive treasurer 
Bourdon has let this secret escape. The Comte 
d'Entragues made a protest in favour of the 
controleur-general, and against the proceedings 
of the Prince de Conti's bureau, which the bu- 
reau refused to receive. 

The Marquis de la Fayette has signed a re- 
monstrance, and delivered it to the bureau for 
the king, setting forth the alarms of the public 
at his majesty's supplying the stockjobbers with 
money to support their gambling ; also at the 



COURTS OF PARIS, TsAPLES, &C. 21 

extravagant prices paid for L'Orient and San- 
^erres, and the absurdity of the king's buying 
estates at a time when he proposed to sell the 
domain. It is a bold letter, and forcible, but not 
well written. 

There have been strange doings in theSan^erres 
business ; a job by which the Baron d'Espagnac, 
the proprietor, gained prodigiously. The con- 
troleur-general had five hundred thousand francs, 
Madame de Polignac three hundred thousand, 
and so forth. 

May 3rd. Rode to Madame de Laborde's at 
Ormesson. In an acre or two they have crowded 
several pretty things, en jar din a VAnglaise. 

To Bellevue with Mrs. S., where Madame 
Adelaide received us, and was extremely civil. 
We dined there. The princess is thin and 
wizened ; she walks about the gardens in a dress 
made like a riding-habit, and a man's round hat. 

May 4th. The Archbishop of Toulouse (Bri- 
enne) is taken into the ministry. 

6th. Rode to Bellevue, and took a view from 
one of the cabinets for Madame Adelaide, ac- 
cording to my promise. 



22 LETTERS FROM THE 

14th. Our north-country friend, Charles 
Williams, arrived on a visit. Mentioning to 
Mrs. S. that a large party of her friends had 
gone together to Bath, she naturally wished to 
know who were the persons who composed it. 
" I will try and recollect," said he — " there were 
George Clavering and his wife, then there were 
Mr. and Mrs. What-dy'e-call-em, there was 
Miss What's-her-name, there was Mr. Thingamy, 
then two ladies from Durham, and another 
whose name I cannot recollect." 

June 24th. We dined at Choisy with Madame 
Campan. The Comte and Chevalier de Parny 
there, the latter a poet. M. Le Moine came to us. 

July 4th. Dined at the Val, and went with the 
Beauveaus and the Comte de St. Priest to visit 
the Comtesse du Barri at Lucienne. She was 
not at home. The house seemed in that disor- 
der which characterises people of her former 
profession, dirty but magnificent. There is a 
fine bust of her. The gardens are regular. 
There is a pavilion admirable for the view and 
interior decoration, but the outside is plastered 
over, and out of repair. The balconies are ridi- 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 23 

culously small and inconvenient. The stucco is 
fine, but the painting by Vienet abominable. The 
gilding of the bronzes is curious. Upon the 
whole it is a delightful costly vide houte'dle. 

It is a curious thing, that by a very lucky 
hit, Mattheiu Lansberg, the conjurer, almanac 
maker of Liege, foretold Madame du Barri's 
fate, under the month of May 1774. He said, 
une grande favorite jouera son dernier role. The 
almanac at the preceding Christmas was denied 
a license on that account, and was obliged to 
be altered before its sale was authorised at Paris. 
Louis Quinze died May 10, and Madame du 
Barri was sent about her business. 

July 6th. Dined at Le Val ; Mesdames de Bois- 
gelin et d'Usson, the Princesse de Poix, &c. All at 
court are in a bustle, because the parliament cf 
Paris will not hear of new taxes, till the king 
lays before them a state of his debts and ex- 
penses, that they may be convinced of the neces- 
sity of fresh impositions. Calonne, whohas fled to 
Rotterdam, has written to the king that he is 
gone off to have liberty to prepare for his de- 
fence, as the Archbishop of Toulouse is doing all 



24 LETTERS TROM THE 

he can to deprive him of tlie means of justifying 
himself. 

July 19th, At the Chambre des Comptes the 
other day, where the Comte d'Artois went 
to enregister by force the edit dii timbre, et de 
Cimpot territorial, he was hissed and hustled ; but 
on somebody calling out '■'■ aux amies!" the 
cowardly mob fled in an instant, and many people 
were lamed. The first president, Nicolai, made a 
very vigorous speech, ending by these remark- 
able words : On veut nous forcer a passer une hi 
la plus oppressive, mais jamais nous ne le ferons ; 
then raising his head and voice, he repeated : 
JYon, monseigneur, nous ne le ferons jamais ! 

Monsieur was accompanied by loud acclama- 
tions, from the Luxembourg to the Cour des Aides. 
After the princes had retired, each court remain- 
ed assembled, and the Chambre des Comptes 
came to a determination to address the king for 
the return of his parliament, to declare the edicts 
illegal, and to forbid their execution ; since 
which the king sat at Versailles, en lit de justice, 
or Seance, and had the edicts enregistered before 
him. The parliament was sullenly mute, and 



COIJHTS OF PARIS, NAJ'LES, &C. '25 

the king angry. As soon as they returned to 
Paris, the parliament assembled and came to 
very strong resolutions, containing a doctrine of 
fundamental rights and primitive contracts, and 
national consents, that the kings of France seem 
long to have lost sight of. On the 15th they 
were exiled. The day had been fixed for the 
17th, but the parliament being convoked to 
assist at the anniversary of the vow of Louis XIII. 
on the 15th, it was apprehended there might be 
some riots ; so their exile was hastened by two 
days. They were sent to Troyes. 

The abuse bestowed on the king and queen and 
the Archbishop of Toulouse is incredible. It was 
proposed in parliament that tlie deputies should 
return en corps, and, throwing themselves on their 
knees before the king, implore him to have pity 
on his people, and recall the odious taxes, and 
perhaps they might touch his heart and con- 
vince his reason. It is said that clubs and salons 
are prohibited. 

20th. La Cour des Aides is as stiffnecked as 
the other courts. The populace have given the 
king the nickname of Louis le timbre. The par- 



26 LETTERS FROM THE 

liament of Rouen was ordered to go into exile at 
Libourne, but the people have risen and kept 
them by force in the city. The parliament of 
Rouen, being summoned to Paris, have returned 
for answer, that they have upon their hands bu- 
siness of the highest importance, which they can- 
not leave. 

21st. We met this evening, at the Val, La 
Marechale de Mirepoix, a surprising woman of 
past eighty, without any infirmities but a shaking 
of her head. She does not look more than fifty. 

29th. L'Archeveque de Toulouse is made 
prime minister. I went to the salon of pictures, 
or exhibition, which is infinitely superior to that 
of London ; several excellent landscapes by Ver- 
net, Huet, &c. ; some charming portraits by 
Madame Le Brun; Madame Adelaide, full length, 
by Guitard ; the death of Socrates, by David. 

12th Sept. Met the Archbishop of Toulouse 
at the Val. They say of him at Paris, '"'' quil a 
trois gouverncmtes, (Mesdames de Grammont, de 
Montesson, et de Boisgelin,) ei pas une bonne." 

25th. Spent the day at Sevres with Mr. Eden. 

27th. Dined at the Val with the Due and 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 27 

Duchesse de la Rochefaucault, Conitesse de 
Boufflers, and the Comtesse Amelie, &c., and 
had a delightful walk home by moonlight. 

28th. Went to Paris to see for a house ; met 
Laharpe and Lalande at dinner at Laborde's. 

29th. Went after dinner with tJie Beauveaus 
and Jarnacs, to visit Madame du Barri. She re- 
ceived us very amiably and merrily. She looks 
a very happy dame. 

30th. The notables have their heads so filled 
just now with the sound of deficits and millions, 
that they can think of nothing else. The Due 
d^Havre having written a pressing letter to his 
steward for a supply, the agent thought proper 
to come to Versailles himself, instead of writing 
an answer. He showed the duke his own letter, 
and it appeared that the duke, who required five 
hundred louis d'or to be sent him without loss of 
time, had written to order five hundred millions, 
and his steward, thinking his master cracked, 
came to make inquiries into the case. 

Oct. 1st. Rode to Paris. Dined with Prin- 
cesse Lubomirska. At night the populace were 
making bonfires, and burning Calonne in effigy. 



28 LETTERS FROM THE 

Oct. 4. The Princess Lubomirska (now stay- 
ing with us) tells me there is at present in France, 
on his travels, an illegitimate son of the Empress 
of Russia. He has all his father Gregory Orlof's 
fortune, and an unlimited credit wherever he goes, 
Hehad only been born three days, when Catherine 
completed the revolution by which her husband 
was dethroned. Princess Daschkow obliged her 
to mount her horse, and she remained on horse- 
back nearly twenty-four hours. 

Simolin, the Russian ambassador, was lately 
sounding the praises of Catherine, which only 
met with an air of dissent on the countenances of 
the company. " Au moins," said he, " on doit 
convenir que cest une femme tres rare." — " Heu- 
reusement !" said one of the bystanders. 

The animosity of the Poles against the Em- 
press Catherine is very great, and bursts out fre- 
quently. Mrs. S. was saying that she should 
be very glad to hear of the empress being at 
Constantinople ; upon which a Polish gentleman 
exclaimed, " I would rather hear of the Grand 
Turc being at Petersburg. However, I should 
not object to her being at Constantinople — a pri- 
soner.'* 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 29 

7th. Dined at the Val. Villagers danced on 
the lawn. Mad. de Beauveau has a pretty little 
negress called Ourika, whom the Chevalier 
de Boufflers brought her as a present from Africa. 
She brings her up as her own child. The poor 
girl may be happy now. Query, whether she 
will be so when she grows up ? * 

There is a foundation at Le Meril, of eighteen 
livres a year, to be given to the married woman 
of that village whose first child is not born till 
nine months are complete from the day of her 
marriage. The cure tells me there have not been 
above six claimants in twenty-one years ! 

9th. I set out from Paris, traversed the Pare 
de Vincennes, and rode along a new road to 
Neuilly sur Marne. The meadows of Chelles 
are handsome, extensive, green, and pretty about 
Lagny. We passed near Pont aux Dames, (Ber- 
nardine nuns,) where Madame du Barri was 
exiled on Louis Quinze's death. It is situated on 
the banks of the river, and approached by fine 

* It was from this girl that the Duchess de Duras took 
the idea of her novel, entitled " Ourika." 



30 LETTERS FROM THE 

avenues in the vale to Crecy, a small town under 
the hill. I then ascended a considerable height 
along the road of Coulommiers, and descended to 
Lacelle, where I was educated. All appeared 
unaltered, except in the persons that inhabit the 
place, now no longer a college. There still re- 
main three monks to perform service. 

10th. I walked about the country to visit the 
haunts and scenes of my boyish, careless days, 
and recognised them with excessive pleasure. 
Some of the old labourers remembered me. The 
situation is admirably rural. The church was 
never finished ; the choir only was completed. It 
is of large dimensions, witli a lofty steeple. The 
mansion consists of a spacious cloister, and has 
many courts and gardens enclosed with a wall, 
and surrounded by the river, over which is a 
two-arched bridge. The village is straggling at 
the foot, and upon the sides of the steep, beau- 
tiful hill that overhangs the river and abbey on 
the south side. As the houses only peep here 
and there through the foliage, and clumps of trees 
crown the summit, nothing can be more pic- 
turesque than tlie whole scene. A mill at 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 31 

the foot, with a vast supply of water, and the 
variety of timber that clothes the hill and vale, 
are additional beauties. I thought the country 
much improved in look. 

11th. Incessant rains prevented my going to 
Maupertzs, the elegant garden of the Marquis 
de Montesquieu Fezenac, the abbey of Formou- 
tiers, and other places. I passed this wet day in 
strolling about the abbey, and in recalling past 
recollections. 

12th. Set out on my return. Came to an 
estate left by M. d'Arvelay to young Laborde at 
Choisy, a grand place. I found him with his 
father, Count Mercy, the imperial ambassador, 
and Mademoiselle Le Vasseur, his chei^e amie, 
just coming out shooting. I joined them, and 
we five in a line, with each a loader, and five at- 
tendants to hand the guns, proceeded regularly 
from one end of a vast plain of stubble and pas- 
ture ; whilst a long line of peasants on each side, 
and between each shooter, beat up and chased 
the game before us. Behind each shooter were 
an ass and panniers, or a peasant with a hotte, to 
carry the game. 



32 LETTERS FROM THE 

Nov. 3rd. We settled in a hoii«e 1 had taken 
at Chaillot, on the Quai de la Conference. 

Dined at Laborde's ; met Monsieur d'Yver- 
nois, the Genevan, who wanted to settle a colony 
in Ireland. Passed the evening at the Comtesse 
de Boufflers. The Comtesse Amelie professes 
great affection for her mother-in-law, and was 
complaining to her of her husband's conduct. 
Madame de B. reminded her that it was her son 
whom she was abusing. " Ah !" said she, " Je 
pensais qiiil ne fut que voire gendre." 

15th. At the Edens at Sevres. The queen 
was extremely attentive to them at Fontainbleau, 
whilst the commercial treaty was pending; but 
upon the Duke of Dorset's return she left them 
off entirely, and out of regard for him never 
takes the least notice of them. 

20th. The Due d'Orleans is exiled. 

23rd. Went with M. Denon to see Valen- 
ciennes' pictures ; also to the show of those of 
M. de Vaudreuil : all of the French school — very 
inferior to the Italian. 

At the opera of ' Edipe a Colonne': charming 
music by Sacchini. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, kc. 33 

25th. Went to the apartments of that dreamer, 
FAbbe Chaupy, who finds out the Eleusinian 
mysteries to be the Gospel, and is going to pub- 
lish twenty volumes in quarto upon the four 
epOchas in Italy, in which he is to prove Plato 
and all antiquity to have been perfect Chris- 
tians. 

I dined at the Marquise de Sillery's, and sup- 
ped with the Beauveaus, 

Dec. 3rd. Spent the evening at the Duchess 
de Grammont's. She is drawn to the life in 
" Adele et Theodore," * in the character of a 
lady the vicomtesse meets at Spa. Madame de 
Sillery read it to us, and said it was like, except 
the heaucoup d'esprit — which she does not think 
Madame de Grammont really has. The Mare- 
clial de Beauveau's portrait is drawn in the 
same book, and, although very charming, is by no 
means flattered. 

9th. I went to St. Germain, to spend two days 
with Madame de Lamarck. 

10th. Went out shooting with Mr. Durell in 
the vineyards of Poissy. Partridges in vast flocks. 

* A novel, by Madame de Genlis, (Sillery.) 
VOL. H. D 



34 LETTERS FROM THE 

When James II. resided at St. Germain, 
his court was kept up with as much eti- 
quette as that of Louis XIV. at Versailles. 
At his dinner, he and the queen were alone 
seated, and attended hy a complete household of 
lords and ladies, stars, garters, and ribbons. The 
famousDuke of Tyrconnel, Talbot, a man of blunt 
speech, was lord chamberlain. The Duke of 
Berwick, natural son to the ex-king, and then a 
general of reputation in the French army, had 
no more honours shown to him than the rest, and 
stood cap in hand by his father's chair. One 
day during dinner, the Comte de Toulouse, a 
natural but legitimated son of the king of France, 
came by his father's orders to announce some 
great event to the abdicated monarch, and James 
immediately ordered Tyrconnel to advance a 
stool for him. The duke hesitated, and it was 
not till he had received repeated orders that he 
pushed forward a stool for the prince. No sooner 
had he done it than he brought another, and tak- 
ing the Duke of Berwick by the arm, attempted 
to force him down upon it, crying out, "Since bas- 
tards are allowed to sit down before my master, 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES. &C. 35 

sit you down, for you are as good a one as the 
other." 

11th. Breakfasted at Madame de Lamarck's 
ehaumiere. It is rather curious that she became 
a d4vote by going to a fortune-teller. She had 
been long attached to the Marquis de Castries, 
and asked the witch what he was about at that 
moment. " II est avec Madame de Blot,'' was 
the answer. The countess ascertained the fact, 
and, taking it as an admonition from heaven, 
broke off all intercourse with him, and became a 
saint. Many years having intervened since 
then, they are now on friendly terms, and he 
sees or writes to her every day. 

12th. Dined at the Duke of Dorset's with 
many English ; Lord Thanet, Lord Wycombe, 
Lady Dunmore, and two Ladies Murray, the 
Misses Coutts, General Ross, &c. 

The Duke of Orleans was nearly drowned the 
other day, by his horse missing the ford of a 
brook much swollen with rain, and being hurried 
under an arch, where the horse was drowned. 
The duke swam out. His servant had plunged 
in to help him, without knowing how to swim, 

D 2 



36 LETTERS FROM THE 

and the duke was obliged to pull him out, at 
great risk to himself. 

The duke's chancelier, Ducrest, being afraid 
of the Bastille on account of an absurd memoir 
uliich he made his master, the Duke of Orleans, 
present to the king, is gone off* to England, hav- 
ing previously given in his resignation. He is 
the brother of Madame de Sillery, of whose his- 
tory the following is a sketch. 

A certain widow named Madame Mezieres, tq- 
vendeuse a la toilette, had an only daughter, wlio, 
being very handsome, made the conquest of Des- 
hayes, a lover of the Duchess de Berry (the re- 
gent's daughter). By this man she had a second 
daughter, now the famous Madame de Montes- 
son.* Mademoiselle Mezieres, her sister, married 
Monsieur Chantry, a sort of gentleman, with a 
wretched chateau in Burgundy. By him she 
had the Marquis Ducrest and Felicite, who mar- 
ried M. de Sillery. They changed their names, 
nobody knows why, from Chantry to St. Aubin 



* Madame de Montesson, aunt to Madame de Genii's, 
who was married to the Duke of Orleans. 



COURTS OF PARIS, iNAPLES, &C. 37 

Diicrest. Madame de Montessou, during lier 
first intimacy vvitli the late Duke of Orleans, (for 
twenty years intervened between tlmt and tlieir 
marriage,) prevailed on Monsieur de Genlis, who 
afterwards took the title of Marquis de Sillery, 
to marry her niece. Before her marriage, her 
mother (married secondly to a Monsieur d'Aud- 
lau) used to take her about to private houses, 
where she sang and played for a present. Slie 
was very handsome, but has no remains of beauty 
now, although she is not old. 

For some days past, the talk of the town has 
been the mysterious death of young Wall, son of 
an Irish general officer here. He married, six 
months ago. Mademoiselle de Chabot, but is 
supposed to have abandoned hi;? wife for some 
one whom he loved better in the country ; by 
which he incurred the resentment of her bro- 
thers. Some nights ago, on his return to Paris, 
he went out alone, and never returned. Some 
letters were found on his table, one to the 
Duchess de Rohan, noble spirited, such as Bal- 
merino might have penned on the eve of his 
execution for his attachment to a cause he 



38 -LETTERS FROM THE 

considered just and honourable. His body was 
discovered next day buried under leaves, having 
been dragged thither from the place of combat. 
A ball had penetrated his brain; his hat was full 
of powder, and even smoke, and the pistol he 
held in his hand was battered, evidently by the 
resistance he made to the unfair approach of his 
murderer. It seems as if he had shot and 
missed, and then his adversary ran in and assas- 
sinated him, a forester having heard two pistols at 
the distance of two minutes of time. The sur- 
vivor has been traced, but it is supposed, in con- 
sequence of the unfortunate youth's dying re- 
quest, contained in a letter to his father, that the 
pursuit will be dropped. 

18th. \yent to Versailles. No the at Madame 
de Polignac's, as all the set went to the king's 
room, to make his par tie. 

Madame Campan informed me of the queen 
of Naples having been delivered of a dead child, 
in consequence of the Spanish minister's language 
to her, by orders of his master. He accused her 
of having General Acton for her lover, to which 
she answered : " I will have his picture drawn 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 39 

by tlie best painter in Italy, and his bust made 
by the best sculptor, and both sent to the king 
of Spain, who may judge whether his is a figure 
for a woman to fall in love with." " Oh, madam," 
replied the insolent Don, '* my master has lived 
long enough to know there is no answering for 
the caprices of des dames galantes." 

23rd. Madame Louise, the Carmelite nun, 
aunt to the king, is dead at St. Denis. She was 
directress — general of all the nunneries in France, 
and her postage, had it not been franked, would 
have cost her sixty thousand livres a year. She 
was deformed and intriguante. 

Jan. 1. To Versailles, at the ceremony of an 
installation of the knights of the Holy Ghost in 
their robes. Dined at the Comte de Montmorin's. 
In the evening we went to Madame de Polignac's 
and the Jeu de la Reine. 

When the king was ill lately, and confined to 
his room, the queen said, as he had no particular 
favourites, it was proper he should have a select 
society to keep him company, and asked I'Abbe 
de Vermont who he thought should be invited. 
" Who," replied he, " can be so proper as his 



40 LETTERS FROM THE 

majesty's ministers ? Why is it, that the moment 
a man is named minister he is never after looked 
upon as fit company for his master, though he 
may have been before that his daily companion ? 
Then he is left open to the malice and intrigues 
of courtiers, whom it is his office to govern and 
control. The ministers are men of the world 
and of character, and therefore fittest for his ma- 
jesty's society." 

His advice was taken, and the ministers invited 
to supper regularly during the confinement of the 
king to his own apartment. Upon this the 
Comte d'Artois went to the ministers, and made 
them believe it was he who had given the hint of 
inviting them to his majesty. When in the 
king's presence, they expressed their sense of 
obligation to H. R. H., upon which Louis ex- 
claimed : *' Ce nest pas lid, cest ma femme qui 
711 en a prie:" which made him look rather silly. 

M. de Carondelet, who has married Miss Pluii- 
ket, daughter of Lord Dunsany, is fifty-four, she 
twenty-four. He is the most passionate lover ever 
seen, and cannot bear to be absent from her a mo- 
ment ; he even sits by her at table. He calls her 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 41 

"Mimie/' and says he has forgotten all music except 
two notes " Mimi, la,'' laying his hand upon his 
heart. Some one said, '* Quand il mourra^ onmettra 
sur sa tomhe Mimi Id mi Id*' He fell in love with 
her at Spa, by being sent, a dessein, to prevail 
upon her to join a party of pleasure, which she 
had refused. He stole upon her unawares, and 
found her reading his travels ; inde amor et connu- 
bium. Madame de Sillery contributed to the suc- 
cess of the artifice. 

The extravagance of the French is scarcely 
credible, and nothing in England ever equalled 
it, at least that I ever heard of. Tiie trousseau 
of Mademoiselle de Matignon, who is going to 
marry the Baron de Montmorency, is to cost a 
hundred thousand crowns, (about 2.5,000/. ster- 
ling.) There are to be an hundred dozen of 
shifts, and so on in proportion. The expense here 
of rigging out a bride is equal to a handsome 
l)ortion in England ; five thousand pounds worth 
of lace, linen, and gowns, is a common thing 
among them. 

6th. Countess d'Albanie and Prince Czarto- 
rinsky drank tea with us. The season is so mild, 



4'2 LETTERS FROM THE 

that the wood merchants are quite in de- 
spair. 

8th. At Versailles to the Duchesse de Polig- 
nac's. Tht with Mrs. S. and F., where there 
was dancing. The queen very gracious ; she 
danced with Lord Strathaven. 

The Princesse de Lamballe is ill from a bruise 
in lier head, which she got at Raincy, by a fall 
in romping with the little Comte de Beaujolois. 
She is said to be quite a Messalina. 

The queen is reported to have taken to devo- 
tion, and ordered no more meat to be served on 
fast days at her table. The truth is, that Ma- 
dame de Chimay, who is a devotee, complained 
to the queen (who never dines at her own table, 
but always at Madame de Polignac's) that her 
chaplains, to whom the queen's dinner is served, 
had meat on Fridays, and so her majesty ordered 
them to have only meagre fare. 

9th. Dined at the Comte d'Angevillers. His 
wife (she was Madame de Marchais) is a hel 
esprit, good-natured, and agreeable, hut flat teicse 
au dernier degre. One seldom sees her face, as 
she wears a large hat and a veil. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 4'3 

14th. The Dukes de Chartres and Montpensier, 
Comte de Beaujolois, Mademoiselle d'Orleans, 
Madame de Sillery (Genlis,) Cesar Ducrest, Pa- 
mela,* Henriette de Cercy, Mr. and Mrs. Eden, 
and their children, breakfasted, or rather dined, 
with us. 

17th. Spent the evening at Bellechasse with 
Madame de Sillery. The Due de Chartres is 
very well educated, and well mannered, but 
rather formal and dressy. Beaujolois is a fine 
spirited boy. Mademoiselle is petite, but pretty. 

18th. Dinner and ball at the Dorsets'. 

19th. I was presented to the Duchesse de la 
Valliere, aged seventy-nine. She was a famous 
beauty, and has yet wonderful eyes. She is very 
deaf. She received us seated at the upper end of a 
room, with the men on one side, the ladies on the 
other, in great form. She was herself decked 
out with all the colours of the rainbow, and a 
profusion of diamonds, painted and patched, so 
that she looked like an embalmed Egyptian 
queen, or Kitty Fisher, when exposed full dressed, 
after her death. A little dog lay on a stool at 
her feet, and she was working ciu parjilage. For 

* Pamela, afterwards married to Lord E. Fitzgerald. 



44 LETTERS FKOM THE 

this amusement, her friends su})ply her with pre- 
sents on new year's day, in gold threads repre- 
senting gardens, temples, &c., which she passes 
her time in pulling to pieces. Her daughter, 
the Duchesse de Chatillon, sits by her as inter- 
preter. It was to her that Madame d'Andelau, 
after a dispute in her presence on the preser- 
vation of beauty, addressed these extempore 
lines : 

La nature, prudente et sage, 
Force le temps a respecter 
Les charmes de ce beau visage, 
Quelle n'aurait pu repeter. 

In her youth she was a professed libertine, yet 
now she pronounces definitively upon moral good 
and evil, gives and takes away reputations, comme 
les autres.* 

* Mr. Swinburne deals somevvliat harshly with Madame 
de la Valliere. No woman ever more sturdily resisted the 
seductions and temptations by which she was surrounded, 
and none was more respected when she fell. It was surely 
permitted at the age of seventy-nine to indulge in a little 
gossip, and to criticise the conduct of those who, perhaps 
with infinitely less right, exhibited greater pretensions to 
virtue. It is, I believe, admitted that Madame de la Valliere, 
from her first presentation at court to the latest moment of 
Iier life, continued most constant both to the person and me- 
mory of her royal lover. Although the history of her liaison 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &.C. 45 

22nd. Evening at Madame de Laborde's, 
where the Marquis de Cubieres sang very well. 

When Madiime d'Osmond was to be presented 
to the queen, her shoemaker disappointed her of 
her shoes, which Leonard, the hairdresser, told 
the queen ; upon which she was so good as to 
send her a pair of hers. Upon her presentation, 

Avith Louis XIV., and her abandonment by that dissolute and 
capricious monarch, is too well known to require comment, 
perhaps the following lines, addressed by her to Louis, when 
he left her for Madame de Montespan, may be less familiar. 
The lines, however, were not written by herself, but by the 
celebrated Gabrielle d'Estrees, who, under similar circum- 
stances, addressed them to Henry IV. I say that they were 
composed by Gabrielle, because they may be seen, written 
by her own hand, on the margin of the splendid MS. volume 
of the Orations of Isocrates, which belonged to her, and 
which is now preserved in the Ambrosian library. I have 
retained the orthography of the MS., as it adds to the 
quaintness, and even to the tenderness, of the expressions. 
De vraye amour aultre amour reciproque, 

C'est le parfait de son plus grand desir ; 
Mais, si I'amour de I'aultre amour se moque, 

Pour ung amour trop moing digne choisir, 
C'est ung ennuy qui ne donne loysir, 

Temps, ne repos pour trouver recomfort. 
Le desespoir est pire que la mort, 

Etjalouzie est ung vraye desespoir. 
O foy rompue ! O trop apparent tort. 

Pour vous me fault pis que mort recepvoir ! 



46 LETTERS FROM THE 

her majesty inquired if the shoes fitted her well, 
and before she could give an answer, the old 
Count d'Osmond, who was close behind, said in 
a loud whisper to her, '^ Dites quits sont trop 
petits."" 

The Due de Lauzun, though endowed with 
some essentially bad qualities, has a great deal 
of cleverness, and on that account was idolized 
at Chanteloup, where the Due de Choiseul used 
to assemble the wits of the age. Lauzun neg- 
lected going thither one summer, and when he 
returned, after a very long absence, he found 
the Due de Liancourt, a man of shallow parts, 
become the favourite, and himself treated with 
neglect by the Duchesse de Grammont, &c. He 
took his departure in consequence, and on being- 
asked the reason, '■^ Ma foi,'"' said he, '^favois 
He longtems absent, et a mon retour fai trouve 
quon avait donne ma place a Liancourt. 

These verses were made on the Due de Lian- 
court by him : — 

Si I'on empruntoit du courage, 
Comme on achete de I'esprit, 

Liancourt auroit I'avantage, 
De se battre comme il ecrit. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 47 

When the Due de Choiseul was turned out oF 
the ministry, he called his maitre d'hotel, and 
told him he was a ruined man, and could no 
longer afford to keep such a servant as he was. 
The man replied, ''^ Monseigneur, vous ne pour- 
rez-vous passer' absolumenf de domestiques ; naurez- 
vous pas hesoin d'un marmiton V 

There is now in Paris a discarded lover of the 
Empress of Russia's, named Yermaloff. He 
received orders to quit Petersburg in twelve 
hours, but had 100,000 rubles given to him, and 
an annuity of 3,000/. sterling settled upon him. 
The present favourite's name is Mummolow. 
Prince Potemkin chooses them for her, and places 
the candidates somewhere in her way. When one 
is accepted, he becomes an aide-de-camp, and re- 
ceives the visits of the courtiers and foreign 
ministers, as did in France a Barri or a Pom- 
padour. 

Monsieur de Crosne, the lieutenant de police, 
is not very bright, and is easily imposed upon ; or, 
in other words, he is quite a blockhead. Some- 
body informed him that there was in a certain 
house '"''unesecte d'Anabaptistes, qui faisait beau- 



48 LETTERS FROM THE 

coup de bruit dans le quartiery He went thither, 
and began taking his information, by asking 
whom the house belonged to. " A Batiste^ 
was the reply. " Et qui sont ceux qui sy assem- 
blent, et qui font tant de bruit ? Les Anabap- 
tistes.'' " Comment done,'' said lie, " des dues ? 
Envoyez les done paitre dans les prairies." 

When he sent a lettre de cachet to suppress the 
salon, it went by mistake to the Salon des Por- 
cherons, a winehouse where the rabble assemble 
on Sundays. 

March 4th. Versailles. Supped at Madame de 
Polignac's. The queen played at billiards all 
the evening. 

There are various reports concerning the true 
cause of the exile of the Due d'Orleans. Some 
say he wanted to raise money himself, therefore 
did what he could to discredit the king's loan ; 
others, that he had cheated the prince of Wales, 
and that the king of England has complained of it. 
When he appeared at court here on his return 
from England, Louis XVI. asked him what he 
had been about there. '' J'y ai appris dpenser,"' 
he replied, fancying he had said something very 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 49 

sagacious. " Oui, a panser les chevaiix,'' answered 
the king". 

Quintin Crauford sat up all night playing 
hazard at the Duke of Dorset's ; and about nine 
the next morning, his chere amie, Mrs, Sullivan, 
went thither in pursuit of him. She ran up 
stairs to drag him from the gaming-table. He 
obeyed, but they say his face was like the coun- 
tenance of a man who has sold himself to the 
devil, and had quite forgotten it, till the appear- 
ance of Old Nick brought the compact ruefully 
to his mind. 

19th. Walked to Madrid, which is in a very 
ruinous condition, propped up in many places, 
but still inhabited ; the outward ornaments all 
tile, and baked earth of various colours, to imi- 
tate porphyry ; a strange mixture of Grecian 
colours and barbarous entablements. In the af- 
ternoon to Longchamps ; a great crowd of car- 
riages, but few worthy of notice, either for rich- 
ness, elegance, or horses. 

20th. Went to stay at the Val, with the Beau- 
veaus and the Princess de Poix. The latter 
who is very captivating, but never succeeded in 

VOL. II. E 



50 LETTERS FROM THE 

becoming a good player at billiards, had these 
lines sent to her : 

Vous, qui d'amour fuyez les loix, 

Evitez la belle de Poix. 

Sans soins, sans projets, et sans arts, 

Cette Princesse 

Touclie sans cesse 

Hors au billard. 

Surprise de ne point toucher, 
Un jour elle alia pour chercher 
La cause chez un grand docteur, 

Qui dit, Ma fille. 

Cast qu'une bllle, 

N'est pas un coeur. 

April 29. The Archbishop of Sens (Brieune) 
turned out of the ministry. The Due de Luynes 
related to us, that in travelling with a party a few 
months ago, the wheel of his carriage being 
broken, he was obliged to stop and go into a 
poor cabaret whilst it was mended ; and there, 
on the white-washed walls, he read these words : 
'* JW Archeveqiie de Sens est un gueuxy et ses ma- 
noeuvres nous rmineront, mais heureusement il ne sera 
pas en place apres le 28 Avril 1788. Date le 28 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 51 

Aout 1787." It is remarkable that Briennewas 
turned out on that very day.* 

I learn from Monsieur d'Entraigue, that the 
Comte d*Artois had a warm conference with the 
king, on the dismissal of the Archeveque de Sens. 
The king asked him why he was so violent 
against that minister, and so anxious that he 
should be turned out. He replied, " Parceque je 
nai pas envie d'aller mendier mon pain dans les 
pays eti^angers'* 

La Comtesse d'Albanie breakfasted with us, 
and introduced Count Alfieri. He is melan- 
choly looking and reserved, but very clever. 

The anti-court people say of the queen that 
the difference between her and Madame du Barri 
is, that the latter '^quitta le public pour le roi, et la 
reine quitte le roi pour le public.^' Very spiteful. f 

* M. de Lomenie, cardinal archbishop. He escaped 
horrors of the revolution, and amassed a large fortune. He 
was great uncle to Madame de Marnezia and Madame de 
Canisy, Duchess of Vicenza. The famous ex-abbe Patrault, 
to whom these ladies were consigned by their mother, Ma- 
dame de Lomenie, who was guillotined in 1703, wanted to 
marry them to two peasants, his nephews ; but Napoleon pre- 
vented this. 

f Mr. Swinburne ought rather to have said most calum- 
nious. E 2 



52 LETTERS FROM THE 

The fate of favourites has ever been the same. 
Madame de Maintenon, seeing some carp freshly 
put into the lake, wlio did not look happy, said to 
some one, " Elles sont comme moi — elles regretteni 
leur bourbe ; and Madame de Pompadour once 
said to the Duke de Choiseul, " Je voudrais itre 
morte ! si vous saviez ce que cest que d'etre obligee 
cTamuser toujours un bete qui s'ennuie." 

4th. A party at Madame Hubers, where we 
met Madame de Stael, daughter to Necker. She 
is clever, dictatorial, talkative, and seemingly not 
unaware of her own merits. She is very plain, 
and I am told she said, " Je donnerais la moitie 
de mon esprit pour la beaute de Madame de Si- 
miani," who is thought the handsomest woman 
now in Paris. 

Madame de Stael went to a bal masque, dis- 
guised like a statue, all in white. A gentleman 
recognised her by her foot, which is not a pretty 
one, and said, " Ah! le vilain pie-de-stal T 

Some time ago she lost a child, and being 
seen out the next day by some one who express- 
ed surprise on the subject, she answered, 
^' 1j' amour maternel est un sentiment tropfroidpour 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 53 

111071 age.'' She has given Sapio some of her com- 
positions in music, desiring he would study 
them. 

The king and queen were at the review of the 
Gardes Fran^aises yesterday, in great splendour, 
bowing to every one, notwithstanding which 
there was no vive le roi ! All was silent till 
the old Marechal de Biron mounted his horse 
at the head of his regiment, when he was received 
with the loudest acclamations. 

5th. In the course of last night an attempt 
was made to arrest d'Espremenil and Goilard, of 
the parliament, who both escaped to the Palais. 
The parliament sat all day ; eleven peers were pre- 
sent. The arrete of the day before yesterday was 
like our Bill of Rights ; strong and declaratory of 
the just claims of the people. Soldiers surrounded 
the Palais, and suffered no one to go in or out. 
Great commotions are expected. Wednesday is 
to be the day for destroying the parliament. I 
believe all this will end in gascojinades, either by 
the court eating its words, or that fear of chastise- 
ment will bring the parliamentarians on their 
knees. We shall see whether violence and despo- 



54 LETTERS FROJM THE 

tism will prevail. I do not think there is steadi- 
ness, spirit, or union requisite for a revolution, to 
be found in the French nation.* All will depend 
on the perseverance of the ministry, and the 
temper of the army. 

6th. Messrs. d'Espremenil and Goilard were 
ordered to be arrested by lettres de cachet ; the 
first for urging the parliament to make the arrete, 
and laying before it copies of the Garde des 
Sceaux's plans, (which he had procured by stealth 
from the king's press at Versailles ;) the other for 
denouncing the amplification of the vingtieme.-j- 
Both made their escape and came to the parlia- 
ment house, which was soon after invested by three 
thousand five hundred Swiss and French guards, 
who locked the gates, and kept all within pri- 

* The bloody tragedy that shortly ensued proved the fal- 
lacy of this judgment; — if indeed the noble epithets of steadi- 
ness, spirit, and union, can be applied to the execrable dis- 
play of implacable madness, and sanguinary combination that 
perverted the vast majority of the French people, until Na- 
poleon rose, and once more enchained them. 

f The Vingtieme was a tax first imposed in the year 
1741, and was somewhat similar to an income-tax in its 
operations. It was afterwards applied in a more direct man- 
ner to inheritances, bequests, 6:c. ilc. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 55 

soners for twenty-four hours. Eleven peers, two 
archbishops, and all the parliament, passed the 
day and night in the halls, with all the spectators 
who chanced to be there. Then M. d'Agoult, 
aide-major (senior adjutant) of the guards, came 
in and demanded the two members, who were re- 
fused him. Deputations were sent to Versailles, but 
denied admittance to the king. At last the two 
obnoxious gentlemen got up, and after protest- 
ing against this unheard-of violation of this most 
sacred asylum, surrendered themselves to M. 
d'AgouU, and were hurried away to I'hotel de 
Police, from whence one was sent to Flsle de St. 
Marguerite, the other to Pierre Encise near Lyons. 
A rescue was attempted, but the two members 
themselves opposed and prevented it. 

9th. Tlie parliament was summoned to Ver- 
sailles, and all the inferior chambers of it broken 
up. The grande chambre was retained to form part 
of a cour plenihre, composed of officers of state, 
&c., where the king has passed a number of 
edicts, whereby he changes the whole order of 
magistracy, amplifies the powers of lower juris- 
dictions, and, en attendant les Hats gencraiix, re- 



56 LETTERS FROM THE 

serves to this cour ylenihre the power of euregis- 
tering all acts. The parliament unanimously re- 
fused its acquiescence. A prorogation is pro- 
claimed, to give time to make up the new tribu- 
nals, &c. 

The Archbishop of Narbonne (Dillon) made a 
strange, fulsome speech to the king, at the head of 
the clergy. He exclaimed, " Sommes-nous done 
une horde etrangere dans Vctat ? Louis, contrary 
to custom, answered by heart, but his memory 
failed him, and, after two attempts to recollect 
himself, he gave it up. 

The Chatelet, una voce, has refused to act in- 
stead of the parliament ; so the king and his mi- 
nisters will be finely hampered. 

Monsieur d'Agoult is universally reprobated 
for his officiousness in this business. 

15th. The Chatelet has refused all the minis- 
terial offers. 

14th. Madame de Sillery brought tlie princes 
to take leave of Mrs. S., before they go to St. 
Leu for the summer. 

22nd. The report is, that Diipaty drew up 
that part of the Garde des Sceanx's (Lamoig- 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 57 

noil !) preamble, which regards law, and Abbe 
Maury the rest. Upon which some one ob- 
served, the Garde des Sceaux's motto onght to be 
" aat pati aut mori f' formerly that of St. The- 
resa. 

The clergy have in their assembly, at the in- 
stance of the Bishop of Blois, instituted a com- 
mittee to remonstrate with the king, and to pe- 
tition for a speedy convocation of the etats gene- 
raux. The Archbishop of Narbonne opposed it. 

24th. It is now said matters will be compro- 
mised between the king and the parliament. 

The dauphin lies dangerously ill, with two 
issues in his back, made to bring down his hump. 
The maxim seems to be, that it is better he 
should die than the nation be governed by Louis 
le bossu. 

•25th. The Abbe Arthur Dillon's affair with 
Madame de Gouvernet is the talk of the 
day. She is the daughter of Count Arthur 
Dillon. Her husband came to the Abbe with 
threats to insist upon his giving up her letters, 
which Arthur refused, (people say because he 
had tiiem not.) Her friends, a strong party, the 



58 LETTERS FROM THE 

Poixe, Beauveaus, &c., say that in her childhood 
she had written him many foolish love-letters, 
and that in consequence he used to tease her 
about them so much that she insisted upon his 
giving them up. Not succeeding in this point, 
she applied to the Archbishop of Narbonne, but 
to no purpose, as Abbe Dillon was supported by 
Madame Routh, (the archbishop's favourite lady,) 
to whom he has been often useful and agreeable; 
and then Gouvernet set off to attack Arthur per- 
sonally, and made a great fracas. People say 
this business will prevent the abbe's promotion 
to the mitre. 

Monsieur de la Monnoie the other night was 
in the parterre. Being extremely fat and bulky, 
he intercepted the view of the performance from 
two men behind him, one in particular, who 
began expressing his displeasure — '■'■Enjin,'' said 
he out loud, " quand on est (Tune pareille gros- 
seur, on ne dev rait pas se mettre devant les gens.'^ 
" JSxcusez, Monsieur,'' said La Monnoie, turning 
round politely, " il nest pas donne a tout le 
monde d'etre plat comme vous." 

June 2nd. At a grande fete given by the Baron 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &c. 59 

de Breteuil, on account of his granddaughter's 
marriage with the Baron de Montmorency. 

3rd. Grand fetes, on the same occasion, at the 
Prince de Montmorency's on the Boulevards. 
We saw the fireworks and illuminations from the 
Princess Lubomirka's, opposite. Breteuil resigns 
to-day. 

4th. Dined at Madame d'Angevillers with 
Monsieur de Bievre, famous for his wit and ca- 
lembourgs. The reputation he has acquired for 
them is such, that, a few days ago, he sat next 
to a person at dinner, and asked him to have the 
kindness to help him to some spinach. The other 
began considering and racking his brain in vain, 
fancying there was a double meaning in this 
speech, and at last said, " Mafo'i ! pour celid-la, 
Je lie le comprends pas." 

Every time anything is made for the king's chil- 
dren, a double quantity, dit-on, is made and sold 
by Madame de Polignac and Madame d'Har- 
court. They have twelve dozen shirts a year. 

Madame de la Vaupaliere, hearing that an 
ahhaie was vacant, wrote to the Bishop of Or- 
leans, who had la porte-feidUcdes hentficcs, in favour 



60 LETTERS FROM THE 

of her sister, who had been abbess somewhere 
before. This was her letter: — " Mojiseigneur, 
je viens dapprendre que VAhhaie dii Pare aux 
Cerfs est vacante, etje vous supplie de la donner it 
ma sceu7\ Elle en est digne, ayant dejd fait ses 
preuves ; etje suis sure qiion lid trouvera toutes les 
qualites requises pour mettre cecouvent sur le meil- 
leur pied possible." 

Now this Pare aux Cerfs is a house near Ver- 
sailles, where Louis Quinze had a seraglio, and 
she put this phrase by mistake instead of Pont 
aux Dames. The king and bishop having enter- 
tained themselves with this letter, the prelate 
wrote a polite answer, assuring Madame de la 
Vaiipaliere that he had no doubt of her sister's 
qualifications, but that unfortunately the abbey 
she asked for was not in his presentation, 

6th. Dined yesterday at the Comtesse d'Alba- 
nie's, with Alfieri, Conway, and d'Hancarville. 
Met the Abbe de St. Nom, editor of the Voyage 
Pittoresque d'ltalie, and Monsieur Le Maitre,who 
was ten years in the Bastille, for having published 
in a periodical paper, called ^^VEspion T'urc^' 
the following story or prophecy. " Catherine de 



COURTS OF PARIS. NAPLES, &C. 61 

Medicis was always surrounded by astrologers, 
one of wliom, by her desire, composed a magic 
mirror, wherein she might see what would occur 
in the future. She beheld eacli of her sons on 
the throne ; then her mortal enemy, Henry of 
Bourbon, his son, and grandson, the crown 
held up by the Jesuits. When it came to Louis 
XVI. she saw nothing but mist, no king, and a 
set of cats and rats devonring; each other. On 
seeing this she fainted away. On her recovery, 
all was clear, and a prince of the name of Charles 
was seated on the throne." 

The following story is supposed to account for 
the famous " Iron Mask." Cardinal Richelieu, 
being anxious to prevent the Due d'Orleans and 
the Condes from succeeding to the throne, pre- 
vailed upon Anne of Austria to raise an heir that 
might entitle her to the regency. She pitched 
on a bourgeois de Troyes, by name Louis Bour- 
don, whose figure and good looks had struck her 
in one or other of her journeys. The surly, ca- 
pricious temper of Louis XIII. having kept him 
at a distance, all the time that was necessary for 
colouring the deceit with the appearance of pro- 



62 LETTERS FROM THE 

bability, she was obliged to keep the birth of 
the intended heir secret, and confide him to 
trusty hands, that were never to abandon liim. 
At the same time he was to remain in eternal 
ignorance of his birth and parentage. A se- 
cond attempt was more successfully achieved, by 
which Louis XIV. saw the light, whilst his 
unhappy elder brother was imprisoned at different 
places, but treated with great attention and ex- 
pense. Probably his guardian disclosed the se- 
cret to him on the death of Louis XIIL, and there- 
by occasioned his removal and close confinement. 
Linguet says that a lady at Chartres, ninety 
years old, still alive, and in her youth mistress 
to one of the ministers, was surprised this should 
not be known, as it was no secret when she lived 
in the world. * 

Madame Campan tells me, that her father-in- 
law actually occupies the same house that was in- 
habited by the maitre d'hotel and favourite femme 
de chambre (his wife) of Anne of Austria. That 

* It has been stated in a previous note, that although the 
real name of the " Iron Mask" still remains a mystery, it is 
the general opinion that the sufferer was the unfortunate Fou- 
quet. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 63 

queen made a neuvaine to St. Leonard,* whose 
chapel is near Choisy, and is famous for procur- 
ing children to barren ladies. Every day during 
her pilgrimage the queen retired to this house at 
Choisy, after the ceremonies were over; and 
there is a tradition, that some one came to visit her 
from Ruel every evening by a private road, which 
leads through the meadows to the river, where 
the country people say there is, or was, a ford in 
the memory of man, and the only one for miles 
on the Seine. They show the traces of the road. 
The Marechal de Beauveau told me the follow- 
ing anecdote, and assured me it had been handed 
down from generation to generation, from the 
person to whom the circumstance occurred. 
Whilst the Cardinal de Richelieu resided at 
Ruel, a man of rank received at Paris a message 
from him, to say, that he desired he would imme- 
diately mount his horse with the utmost secrecy, 
and come with all speed to confer with his Emi- 
nence upon certain affairs of great moment. The 
nobleman went to his stable unobserved, and 
stole away as soon as he had saddled his horse. 

* Nine days' prayers. 



64 LETTERS FROM THE 

As he had forgotten in his hurry to take a cloak, 
and as he was overtaken by a very heavy and 
long shower of rain, he took refuge near Nanterre, 
in a public-house which was famous for dressing 
eels a la matelotte. There he found a well-look- 
intr man at the door, driven in also by the storm, 
and accosted him. Finding him a decent, well- 
informed person, the nobleman entered into fur- 
ther conversation, and at last good-naturedly 
proposed to treat him with a dish of eels, as the 
smell of the dinner had awakened his own appe- 
tite. They sat down, dined, and drank a merry- 
glass together. When the weather cleared up, 
the nobleman paid for his reckoning and called 
for his horse ; the stranger then took him aside, 
and, naming him, said, 

" Sir, I know you well, though you are 
thus unattended. The liberal behaviour and 
confidential intercourse with which you have 
honoured me, have made such an impression 
upon me, that I am determined, at all hazards of 
my own, to preserve you from destruction. I 
know you are summoned in the most secret 
manner to a rendezvous with the cardinal, and 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. fi5 

there, I know, you will immediately be strangled, 
and your body buried in the garden, where many 
other good men lie unknown. You will believe 
my intelligence when I tell you I am the public 
executioner, sent for to put you to death. There- 
fore mount your horse and return home, or to 
whatever place you think the most secure." The 
nobleman shook him lieartily by the hand, and, 
taking his advice, galloped back to Paris with- 
out minding either wind or rain. 

The cardinal kept up great state, and one day, 
at the Duchesse de Chevreuse's, the Marquis de 
Conflans made remarks before him on the osten- 
tation of his having his train borne by a cheva- 
lier de St. Louis. The cardinal replied, that it 
was the custom always to have one as " Gen- 
tilhomme Caudataire. The predecessor of the 
present one," added he with a sneer, " bore the 
name and arms of Conflans." 

" Je nen doute pas,'* said the marquis; " car 
il y a longtems quit se trouve dans ma famille de 
pauvres heres, dans le cas'de tirer le diable par la 
queue." 

When the king of Sweden was at Paris, the 

VOL. II. F 



66 LETTERS FROM THE 

courtiers turned him into ridicule, as they do 
everybody. " Enfin,'' said Monsieur de C, 
" c*est un roi' — " couronne,^* interrupted a cau- 
tious friend, in order to put a stop to his invec- 
tives. 

I was recommending one of Miss Burney's 
novels to Madame Lemoine. 

" Vos romans Anglais sont si tristes, "said she. 

" Pas toujoursy madame." 

" A vous dire vrai, je nen ai lu quun, et 
il in a paru d'une iristesse inconcevahle. 

" Et son litre V 

" // s'appelle les Nuits d* Young //" 

It is the fashion now at Paris for ladies to 
be, or pretend to be, learned — at least au fait of 
history — which has not certainly been part of 
their education. The remarks one hears coming 
from them are sometimes very diverting. Some 
one was talking of St. Louis and Louis XVL, 
as being the best kings France could boast of, ex- 
cept Henry IV. 

" Pour 7noi," said Madame d'Osmond, " de 
tons les rois de France, je vous declare que cest 
Louis V. qui est mon favoru' 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 67 

The only thing recorded of this monarch is 
his having obtained the surname of Le Faineant. 

The other night, at the Theatre Fran^ais, the 
part of Mithridate was acted by Granger, who 
squints, and is very ugly : when Monime said to 
him, " Seigneur, vous changez de visage^" a 
man in the parterre called out, " Eh ! tant 
mieux ! laissez le fawcJ" 

June 7th. We went to dine and sleep at Le 
Val. M. Gaillard Roy, the astronomer, and the. 
Due de Chabot, were there. We had a tremendous 
storm ofthunder and lightning ; the latter, divided 
and dispersed by the conductors, played about 
the house like lambent meteors, without points 
or sharpness. 

Accounts from Brittany state that a deputation 
of four hundred gentlemen waited upon Mon- 
sieur de Thiers, requesting him to forward their 
memorial to the king, and their circular letter to 
the princes and the peers. He promised to do 
so, but expostulated with them upon the illega- 
lity of their assembling in such a manner, and 
expressed how much the king would be offended 
by it. To this they replied, that when the Eng- 

F-2 



68 LETTERS FROM THE 

lish landed at St. Cast, they assembled in a simi- 
lar manner, and had been thanked for doing so 
by his majesty. " That was a different case," 
said Thiers ; "it was against the enemies of 
your country." — " The case is the same now," 
they boldly answered. 

The Comte d'Artois says publicly, ''C'est 
un manoeuvre manque — cela ne pent pas tenir — il 
faut revenir sur ses pas.'' But the queen and her 
advisers will not give up the point. 

The Bailli de Soissons, on refusing to accept, 
sent to the Garde des Sceaux (Lamoignon) co- 
pies of letters written to them by him in 1771, 
when he was exiled, exhorting the magistrates of 
Soissons to join the parliament, and refuse to ac- 
quiesce in the king's demands. 

The pun at present is, " que le grand bail- 
lage est a St. Cloud f that is, they are very dull 
there, and yawn a great deal ; and that " Les 
gardes Frangaises sont des garde-robes." 



Canterbury, Jvne 12. 

Sailed for England, and slept at Canterbury. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 69 

The country in high beauty. The limpidity of 
the streams, neatness of the gardens, beauty of 
the women, and elegance of almost every vehicle 
when compared to those we left in France, 
struck me forcibly on my return to Old Eng- 
land. 

The court and cloisters here are kept very 
spruce, and the reverendissimi seem to be com- 
fortably quartered. The few remaining ruins of 
St. Augustin's monastery and its vast enclosures 
vouch for its former splendour. The cathedral 
is a light gothic pile ; the eastern part much more 
ancient than the rest, being in the Saxon or 
Norman style. 



London, Nov. 17, 

We went yesterday with Dutens to Mr. 
M'Kenzie's at Petersham, and met Count Wo- 
ronzow. We saw stars by daylight with Mr. 
M'Kenzie's equatorial, a wonderful machine ; 
for by calculation, and by placing the instrument 
with infinite precision, you immediately point to 
the star you want. 



70 LKTTERS FROM THE 

Nov. 29. 

We dined on Monday at Barthelemy's, (secre- 
tary to the French embassy,) with a large com- 
pany — Lucchesi, Mademoiselle d'Eon, Miss 
Wilkes, Sir John Macpherson, &c. &c. 

Captain J. Payne being in the House of Com- 
mons, the other day, during a debate relative to 
the navy, had a note conveyed to him from ano- 
ther member, desiring him to get up and explain 
to the house certain sea terms which were evi- 
dently misunderstood. The note began thus : 
" Sir, as you are " bread" to the sea," &c. &c. 
Payne took out his pencil, and answered upon 
the same paper, " I am not bread to the sea, 
but the sea is bread to me, and d — d bad bread, 
it is." 



Nov. 31. 



We dined yesterday at Wilkes's with some of 
the same party, among whom were Barthelemy 
and Count Rewitsky, imperial envoy, and a famous 
collector of rare books, which he lias sold to Lord 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 71 

Spencer and some others. At the dessert, some- 
body happened to mention Lord Sandwich, when 
Rewitsky started up, saying, " Is it the famous 
Lord Sandwich, who had his friend condemned 
by the House of Lords to be hanged for writing 
an abominable book?"* 

Wilkes stared, and hung his jaw and tongue, 
as was usual with him in any dilemma, but said 
nothing. Barthelemy, who knew nothing of the 
matter, pressed Rewitsky to give an account of 
it. " It was a horrible work," said he, " as I am 
told, for I never read it ; it certainly deserved 
that its author should be punished, for he must 
have been void of all religion, shame, and 
decency ; I am surprised Lord Sandwich let 
him live so long." Soon after, without anything 
more being said on the subject, the conversation 
changed, and perhaps Rewitsky will never know 
that it was his Amphytrion du jour whom he 
had been thus reprobating to his face. 



Dec. 8. 
It was reported yesterday that the king was 

dead. Joy was in many faces among the people 

* Wilkes's book. 



72 LETTERS FROM THE 

of the opposition — among others, in that of 
Lord Derby, who clapped and rubbed his hands 
with an air of infinite satisfaction. There are 
accounts to-day of his Majesty being still alive ; 
Colonel St. Leger's face rather long as he learnt 
it. All the prince's associates seem out of their 

M'itS. 

Dec, 12. The king is quite insane, but in no 
danger of death. Dr. Monro attends him. 
Strange confusion is expected about the regency, 
as there is no precedent in our law for such a 
case. I dined at Wilkes's, and calling in at Cos- 
wa3''s, found great agitation and mystery going 
on there, about something unexplained. I fancy 
it is some knighthood, or other nonsense, con- 
certed between Cosway and the prince. 



January 4, 1789. 

Lord Bandon has summoned the armed neu- 
trality, of which he, rather than the Duke of 
Northumberland, seems to be the head, and de- 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 73 

sired to know whether they were unanimous in 
supporting the Prince of Wales. Twenty-five 
said yes ; the rest went off to Pitt's side. 

Mr. Grenville is to be Speaker. He is young 
and near-sighted. There are great disputes 
among the king^s physicians. The queen will 
accept the regency if the prince refuses, but he is 
decided to have it on any terms. The limita- 
tions have been sent to him. They are sup- 
posed to prevent him from giving any patent 
places, making peers, and changing the house- 
hold. The king's real and personal estate is to 
be vested in Lord Hawkesbury and J. Robinson, 
by which means they keep the chancellorship of 
Lancaster and the surveyorship of the woods. 
The opposition talk loudly and imprudently of 
wreaking their vengeance on Eden, and on 
Buckingham. The Duke of Portland is to be 
minister. Many members skulk ; among others, 
Johnny Wilkes, who is gone to hide himself in 
the Isle of Wight till all is over. 

Jan. 9. The Foxites say the king amuses 
himself with the red book, creating baronets, and 
that he takes exercise in his apartment, riding 



74 LETTERS FROM THE 

on a cane.* The Pittites, on the contrary, say 
he is recovering fast, and will soon be well. The 
Duke of Northumberland is to have the ordnance. 

Many caricatures are out. The prince, as 
Prince Hal ; John Falstaff, Sheridan ; Bardolph, 
Jack Payne ; Pistol, &c. ; the last scene in 
Henry IV. 

When Dr. Willis was examined, Sheridan, 
with a long string of questions, was ready to per- 
plex him if possible. Willis said, " Pray, sir, 
before you begin, be so good as to snuff those 
candles, that we may see clear, for I always like 
to see the face of the man 1 am speaking to." 

* An odd example of hallucination, not unlike that recorded 
by Mr. S., is said to have occurred not long since in a certain 
Royal Palace. A person holding a place about the court, and 
who no one imagined had any wits to lose, was waiting in the 

gallery for the royal party to go out riding. Lady , 

happening to pass by, placed her Leghorn hat and feathers on 
a table. This our gentleman no sooner saw, than he put it 
on, mounted the ballustrade of the stairs, and fancying him- 
self galloping after the royal cortege, slid down the banisters 
ventre a terre. He had rather astonished the servants on 
the previous day, by asking for svgar and cream, when they 
brought him his soup at dinner. They were not aware that 
he mistook it for green tea. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, S:c. 75 

Sheridan was so confounded at this speech of 
the basihsk doctor, that he could not get on in 
his examination, and for once in his life he was 
posed. 

April 8. The rejoicings on the king's reco- 
very have been universal, and at the queen's 
first drawing-room the crowd was excessive. 
Her majesty is very popular at this moment, 
which is generally the case when success bestows 
the palm. Indeed, upon the whole, her conduct 
throughout has been dignified, sensible, and be- 
coming her exalted situation. 

We have had much gaiety and many fetes. 
Those of the French ambassador (La Luzerne) 
were superb. The illuminations were so nume- 
rous, that the whole town seemed in a blaze. If 
the Prince de Monaco had arrived upon one of 
those nights, he would indeed have been gratified 
at the respect shown to hini.*^ 

The ball of balls was that given by White's 

* On his arriving at night in London, he mistook the 
hghted lamps of the streets for an ilkimination on his ac- 
comit, and said he was sorry the King of England had put 
himself to such expense. 



76 LETTERS FROM THE 

Club, at the Pantheon. It was a most brilliant 
spectacle. I never saw anything in foreign coun- 
tries to be compared to it. The illumination of the 
dome, the wreath of lamps round the pillars, the 
dresses and feathers of the ladies, and the excel- 
lence of the supper, were objects of great praise. 
Very few of the prince's friends were there, and 
scarcely one of the party's women. The Duke of 
Gloucester and his children were the only mem- 
bers of the royal family. The prince used all 
his endeavours to keep people away. How much 
nobler would it have been had he put party feel- 
ings in his pocket, and gone himself to a fete 
given to celebrate the recover}^ of a parent! 



London, May 5. 
A great gala was given last week by Brookes' 
Club, to a crowd of everything fashionable and 
handsome in London. The opera-house was too 
small for the company. The boxes were hung 
with blue, buff, and silver. The floor ex- 
tremely dirty, but the coup-d'oeil fine. Peo- 
ple of both sides of the question were there. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 77 

After waiting two hours, without music or any 
thing going on, Mrs. Siddons, ridiculously 
dressed as Britannia, in red and blue, with a 
green helmet, shield and lance, declaimed a piti- 
ful ode on the occasion, addressed to the Prince 
of Wales and the Duke of York, who stood be- 
fore her in coats of mail. Lord Townshend, on 
being asked what he thought of the prince's rich 
suit, said, "it was probably the coat belonging to 
his father's strait waistcoat." 

The prince gives a fete to the "jenesais quoi'' 
club ; Boodle's another, and Luzerne another. 
The fetes of the latter are sumptuous, and worthy 
of the grand or rather gros monarque whom he 
represents. Prince William Henry is created 
Duke of Clarence. 

Erskine, the lawyer, having joked too severely 
upon the poverty of his party, the Buffs and 
Blues sent him to Coventry;* but, upon proper 
repentance, he was again received into the set, 
and asked Mr. Fox if, having now made every 



* The BufFs and Blues, from the colours assumed by the 
Whig party. 



78 LETTERS FROM THE 

necessary concession, he might not hope to regain 
once more the confidence of the party. " My 
dear fellow," answered Fox, " your own confi- 
dence is enough to satisfy any man : what can 
you want with any more ?" 



FROM MRS. SWINBURNE TO HER HUSBAND, 

Versailles, May 10, 1789. 

I hope you received my letter, to say Harry 
was arrived safe and well. Monsieur de Beau- 
veau presented him to the Prince de Lambesc, 
and he was almost immediately installed among 
the king's pages. The education he will there 
receive is considered to be in every respect excel- 
lent. There is great strictness ; but, in m}' 
opinion, the elder pages have too much power 
over the younger ones, who are treated like fags 
at Eton. I had an audience of the queen two 
days ago ; she is very much altered, and has lost 
all her brilliancy of look. She was more gra- 
cious than ever, and said, " Vous arrivez dans 
un mauvais moment^ chere Madame Sivinburne. 
Vous ne me trouverez point gaie ;fai beaucoup sur 
le cd'ur." 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 79 

She is very low-spirited and uneasy about her 
son, who, by all accounts, lies dangerously ill, 
and is not likely to recover. She inquired 
kindly after all our family, and assured me she 
should consider Harry as under her care, and 
also spoke of our business, which Madame Cam- 
pan had told her was my reason for now re- 
turning to France. 

" Je crains^^ said she, " que dans ce moment je 
ne pourrai vous Hre d'aucune utilite ; mais si les 
terns deviennent meilleurs, vous savez que je 
n^ouhlie jamais 7nes amis.^' 

Apropos of that, I find it was by her desire that 
the Luzernes have shown us so much attention. 

The whole tenor of her conversation was me- 
lancholy, but she said little about public affairs ; 
her child's illness seemed uppermost in her mind. 
The tears, which I with difficulty restrained in 
her presence, gushed from me as soon as I had 
quitted the room. She told me she should like 
to see me again soon. Poor thing ! her kind- 
ness and sorrowful manner made me more inte- 
rested and enthusiastic about her than ever. 

The convocation of the Etats Generaux by 



80 LKTTERS FROM THE 

Necker's advice took place on the 27th of last 
month, and on the 4th of this. They had their 
seance, at which the king, queen, and all the 
royal family, attended in great state, in the Salle 
des Menus Plaisirs duUoi.^ It was by all accounts 
a very fine exhibition, but I was not tempted to 
go, although Madame de Beauveau offered to 
take me ; for you know I hate sights, and detest 
enduring fatigue unless for some useful purpose. 
However, I find she did not go herself. They 
say Necker made a fine speech, but not a satis- 
factory one, as he affirmed that the deficit 
amounted to fifty-six millions. He assured his 
hearers that nobody but himself was capable of 
saving the country. 



July 1. 
The fermentation seems to be strangely in- 
creased : and if it were not for Harrv's being; 

* The Salle des IUe?nis Plaisirs is one of the apartments 
in the building of that name, in the Fauxbourg Poissonniere. 
The buildings of the Menus Plaisirs are used as a depot for 
furniture, &c. It has been employed for balls, concerts, 
^c, since the time of Louis IV. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 81 

here, I would return directly to England ; but I 
confess I am unwilling to leave him behind, till 
I know all is settled and quiet. Yet I am as- 
sured there can be no danger for us, and that the 
unpopularity of the court will not affect private 
individuals. 

The death of the dauphin prevented my 
seeing the queen again. It has been a bitter 
stroke for her, though she must have expected it. 
She mourns much, and receives no one without 
absolute necessity. I understand she considers 
Monsieur as a great cause of the evils now 
occurring, as it was he who proposed and in- 
sisted upon the number of the Tiers Etats repre- 
sentatives being double that of the other orders, 
on the plea of its being a larger body. He 
made a fine flummery speech to the king about 
the justice of its being so. 

Necker is very popular, and makes up to the 
Tiers Etats. Being a Calvinist, he has a horror of 
the French clergy, and, being of low origin, na- 
turally dislikes the nobles. 

The king went to another seance of the Etats 
Generaux, but was very ill received ; and Mira- 

VOL. II. G 



82 LETTERS FROM THE 

beau behaved most insolently.* The Tiers Etats 
have now established themselves apart, as an as- 
semblee nationale, with M. Bailly, their pre- 
sident, who convoked them in a tennis-court, 
where they have sworn to resist the clergy and 
the nobles.f The Duke of Orleans attends this 
new assembly, and the Eveque d'Autun (Talley- 
rand) makes himself very conspicuous. 

The king has at length been prevailed upon 
to send for troops, and the Marechal de Broglie 
is ordered to come with twelve thousand men. 
Mirabeau has brought an address to the king 
from the assembly, demanding a counter order, 
and it has been presented by the Comte de 
Clerraont-Tonnerre. I do not know the result. 

* The language here alluded to is that held by Mirabeau, 
both to the king himself and to the Duke de Breze, grand 
master of the ceremonies, who came by order of Louis to 
dissolve the sittings of the Tiers Etats. It was then that 
Mirabeau rose and said, " Go and tell him that sent you, 
that we are here through the force of the people, and that 
nothing shall remove us but the force of bayonets." 

f This was the celebrated oath known as the Sernie?it du 
Jeu de Pa lime. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 83 

July 10. 

Neckeris dismissed, and banished from France, 
and the Baron de Breteuil is come in. This has 
been the Comte d'Artois' doing-. The departure 
of" Necker was the signal of explosion. His 
bust and that of the Duke of Orleans were pa- 
raded round the town, and they were called 
les defenseiirs de la patrie T All the theatres 
were closed, soldiers and populace filled the 
streets, fire was set to the barriers, cannons were 
fired, the tocsin sounded, and all was sedition. 

The Prince de Lambesc, with his regiment, ap- 
peared on the Place Louis XV., but the troops had 
no orders to act ; therefore, although they drove 
away some of the assailants, the latter very 
soon armed themselves en masse, and in less 
than a day they amonnted to a corps of six thou- 
sand men, with M. de la Salle for their com- 
mandant. They have taken the colours of the 
Duke of Orleans' livery — blue, red, and white 
— for their cockade. They seized the arms at 
FHotel des Invalides. The Gardes Fran^aises, 
joined them, and the day before yesterday they 
attacked the Bastille, which they took without 

G 2 



84 LETTERS FROM THE 

trouble. Poor M. de Launay, the governor, and 
some other officers, were massacred. 

They have insisted on the king's ordering the 
Marechal de Broglie and his troops to withdraw, 
and he has, I fear, consented. The Due de Lian- 
court has joined the rebel party. 

The king has been to the Assemblee Nationale 
with Monsieur and the Comte d'Artois. The 
recall of Necker was insisted upon, and tlie king 
has sent for him. It is said the reason of his 
thus acquiescing in everything that is asked him 
is, that he makes a point of acting quite con- 
trary to Charles 1. in his dissensions with his 
people, and he is constantly studying his his- 
tory. He has ordered the Comte d'Artois and 
his family to leave France, as well as the other 
princes of the blood ; but Monsieur has refused to 
oo. The Polignacs also, who are the objects 
of the detestation of the populace, are ordered 
away for their safety, and Madame de Tourzel is 
to be " surintendante des enfans." There were 
' only three prisoners found in the Bastille. 

M. de la Fayette is made commandant-gene- 
ral de la Mi lice Parisienne. The people of 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 85 

Paris insist on the king's coming- amongst 
them. 



July 24. 

The king has been to Paris. M. de Beauveau 
went with him. The people would not let the 
gardes du corps go beyond the barrieres. M. 
Bailly presented the keys of the city to the king 
in a gold basin, * and in his speech compared 
him to Henri Quatre — a bad comparison, for the 
latter came as a conqueror, poor Louis as a van- 
quished monarch. La Fayette was there at the 
head of the national guard. The cry was Vive la 
nation ! But when the king accepted the tri- 
color cockade, they greeted him with Vive le 
roi ! 

At I'Hotel de Ville he was addressed by the 
Comte de Lally Tollendal. 

* Bailly, mayor of Paris, who was subsequently guillo- 
tined. It was he who made the famous answer to one of 
the wretches who taunted him, as he stood on the scaffold, 
with, " Tu as peur, tu tremble." " Non," rephed he, " j'ai 
froid. " 



86 LETTERS FROM THE 

The queen was in dreadful fear until the king's 
return to Versailles ; Monsieur remained with her 
all the time. The poor king came back sadly 
fatigued. 

M. Necker has returned triumphant, and was 
received with honours, cannon firing, and illumina- 
tions. As he is so popular, it is to be lioped he 
will be of use in producing tranquillity. 



Aug test 5. 

Young Laborde has been making himself very 
conspicuous, as well as Charles de Noailles, who 
married his sister, declaiming in favour of demo- 
cracy ; — also the Due d'Aiguillon and Matthieu 
de Montmorency.* All the droits feodaux are to be 
put an end to. A I'eJDeiim was sung in the chapel 
at Versailles, at which the National Assembly as- 
sisted. 

* The Dukes d'Aiguillon, Noailles, Montmorency, and 
others, abdicated their titles and privileges in the sitting 
of the National Assembly upon the 4 th of August. But 
this act of concession, or patriotism, if it may be so called, 
did not save them from subsequent proscription. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 87 

The Duke of Orleans is very active, but does 
not succeed. The discussion now is,, whetlier 
the king is to be allowed a veto on every act 
that is passed ; and parties differ on the subject. 
The populace now call the poor queen 
Madame Veto, as they used to call her Madame 
Deficit. 



Oct. 4. 

The Duke of Orleans is becoming popular : 
they call him Le pere du peuple ! 

The day before yesterday a troop of poissardes 
went about Paris, calling for bread ! Hordes of 
brigands and women, with pikes and sabres, came 
on to Versailles. They say L'Abbe Gregoire 
led them on.* The gardes du corps, under the 

* Count Henry Gregoire, born somevvliere near Luneville. 
He entered holy orders at an early age, and was elected de- 
puty to the States General. He was one of the four first 
priests who renounced their ministry, and became one of the 
most violent enemies of the king. He had the good fortune 
to escape the fate that befell the greater part of the principal 
actors in the Revolution, and lived to an advanced age. 



88 LETTERS FROM THE 

command of the Due de Guiehe, defended the 
entrance of the palace, at the hall called I'Oeil 
de Boeuf. The mob begged to be heard, and the 
king allowed one of the women to enter. He 
gave an order to the directors of the royal gra- 
naries for bread to be distributed among them. 

The Comte d'Estaing behaved in a very 
cowardly manner, and deserted his post. They 
say the Marechal de Brogiie has offered to con- 
vey the king and royal family in safety to Metz, 
and he is much advised to go ; but Necker ob- 
jects to it. It is supposed that if he went, the 
Duke of Orleans woidd be crowned. Necker 
proposed that the queen and children should go 
to Rambouillet, but she will not leave the 
king. 

The king has accepted the constitution. La 
Fayette addressed him. He speaks little, they 
say, from having few ideas, not from profound 
thought. He said in the Assemblee Nationale 
that " V insurrection est laplus sainte des devoirs.'' 
That is certainly an original idea. The king has 
ordered away the gardes du corps, except those 
belonging to the palace. Many nobles have run 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 89 

away. The Due de Fronsac had great difficulty 
in escaping from Paris, which he did in disguise. 



Oct. 9. 
We have had dreadful doinos. On the 6th, 
at night, a set of wretches forced themselves into 
the chateau, screaming, " La tete de la reine ! 
a has la reine ! Louis ne sera plus roi, — il nousfaut 
le Due d' Orleans — il nous donnera du pain celui- 

la r 

Monsieur Durepaire, one of the gardes du 
corps, defended the queen's door, and was killed. 
Others took his place, and were thrown down. 
" Sauvez la reine !" was the cry of the gardes 
du corps. Madame Thibaud awoke the queen, 
who threw a coverlid of the bed over her, and 
ran into the king's room, and, soon after she was 
gone, her door was burst open. The king ran 
and fetched his son, and all together they waited 
the event. They owed their rescue to M. de la 
Fayette and the Gardes Fran^aises. He insisted 
upon the king taking up his abode at Paris, 



90 LE ITERS FROM THE 

without which he would not promise him safet3^ 
At one, next day, therefore, they all went, partly 
escorted by the poissardes and their bullies. 
They were six hours going from Versailles to 
Paris. A deputation from the Assemblee Na- 
tionale waited upon the king and queen soon 
after they arrived at the Tuileries, and were very 
civil ; which was something to raise their spirits. 
M. de la Fayette had a quarrel at the Marquis 
de Coigny's with the Duke of Orleans. The 
latter came to the king, who accepted his sub- 
mission, but requested him, for his own sake, to 
o-o to England, under the pretext of a special 
mission, with passports from the king and the 
assembly. This he has done, and his astonished 
partisans sent off to Boulogne to stop him, and 
force him to return to Paris. 

They say things are now becoming tranquil. 



Londoti, Dec. 1, 1789. 
I am just arrived, and so fatigued that it is im- 
possible for me to set out for the north for seve- 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 91 

ral days. It will take me that time to recover. 
But though weak in body, I am happy in mind 
to be again in England, and so soon to see 3^ou 
all. One sad drawback is my having left Henry ; 
but he is well and safe, receiving an excellent 
education, much loved by his master, and under 
the special care of Madame de Talaru and Mon- 
sieur de Beauveau, who, on the very first appear- 
ance of danger, will send him directly to Eng- 
land. But all is quiet now, and I hope will 
remain so. The people are in high good humour 
since the royal family came to the Tuileries. It 
was, perhaps, natural that the Parisians should be 
jealous of the predilection of their sovereigns for 
Versailles. 

The king's acceptance of the constitution, and 
in no respect whatever doing anything to dis- 
please or disgust them, seems to have had a very 
salutary effect ; and can one regret the abuses 
and injustice of the despotic and immoral court 
of Louis Quinze being put an end to ? 

When I had obtained my passports for myself 
and maid, I asked to take leave of the queen, 
and the interview was granted, which is a great 



9-2 LETTERS FROM THE 

favour, for she sees no one. She received me 
graciously, even kindly, and the manner in which 
she spoke of my son was calculated to set my 
heart at ease concerning him. She wished me 
every happiness. " Vous allez dans votive heu- 
reuse famille" said she, " dans un pays tran- 
quille, oil la calomnie et la cruaute ne vous pour- 
suivront pas ! Je dois vous porter envie." 

I ventured a few words of consolation, hinting 
that times were now improving, and that her 
popularity and happiness would be restored. She 
shook her head. We were alone. I know not 
how I was worked up to it, or had courage to 
make the proposal ; but I did so — that if she 
thought herself in danger, my services were at 
her command, and that she could come with me 
to England in the disguise of my maid, whom I 
could easily dispose of, by sending her under 
some pretext to her friends at St. Germain. She 
thanked me, and smiled faintly, but said nothing 
would induce her to leave her family. She added 
that she had refused other offers of the same sort. 
" Besides," and she looked round — *' si je vou- 
lais, cela ne se pourroit pas ; il y a trop d'es- 
piojis." 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 93 

T took leave of her with regret and affection. 

I am sorry to say I have been informed by one 
of the queen's friends that there is some doubt of 
the perfect fidelity of Madame Campan. 

As it happened, it is lucky my offer was not 
accepted ; for on my arrival at Boulogne the car- 
riage was assailed by a horde of poissardes, who 
accused me of being the mistress of the Duke of 
Orleans, going after him to England. They de- 
clared I should not leave France. 

Imagine my terror. I put my head out of the 
window to address them, " Ecoutez, ecoutez," 
said one or two of them. " Mesdames,'' said I, 
as politely as my fear would let me, " ai/ez la 
honte de me regarder. Je ne suis nijeune nijolie ; 
Monsieiu^ le Due d' Orleans, auroit-il si mauvais 
gout?'' 

This made the creatures laugh, and some said, 
"Passimal — pas simal." Never did beauty long 
to be admired more than I did to be thought ugly. 
At last Mrs. Knowles, from the inn, came to my 
assistance, and vouched for my being otherwise 
than what they thought. But I never got rid of 
my terror till I found myself safely on board. 



94 LETTERS FROM THE 

I had a dreadful passage, but the storm of the 
elements alarmed me less than the torrent of hu- 
man violence which I had just escaped. Adieu, 
for I am sleepy, and can write no more. 



MR. SWINBURNE TO HIS WIFE. 

London, May 12, 1790. 

The town is filling with French emigrants, 
and I have already met several of our acquaint- 
ance. I was induced to dine at Greenwich, the 
other day, with the Duchess de Biron, Madame 
de Cambise, and Miss Wilkes, who is tlie great 
protectress of all the expatriees. It was a charm- 
ing day, and the party was very agreeable. Dr. 
Maskelyne showed us his camera obscura. 

I have just read Bruce's travels, which you 
inquire about. He has cooked up strange false- 
hoods in his imaginary conversations with an 
Abyssynian priest. He makes himself tell him 
that every man in our country is allowed to serve 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 95 

God in his own wav, and as long; as the teachers 
confine themselves to what the sacred books have 
told them, they can teach no ill, and therefore 
meet with no molestation. 

The other day I went to a fete on board Lord 
Shrewsbury's yacht, the Talbot, off Woolwich. 
The party consisted of Lady Winny and Miss 
and Mr. Constable, Lady Wallace, and a large 
party of Wrights, Blundells, Bedingfields, kc. 
I slept on board, and returned the next day to 
dine with Townley* and Jekyll at Wilkes's. 
Lord Shrewsbury and Sennet sailed from Wool- 
wicli, but wdiither bound I know not. They 
would fain have carried me off with them, but I 
made my escape in time. I do not believe they 
themselves know whither they are going. I dine 
to-day at Totteridge, to meet Lord Henry Petty, 
and to-morrow shall start for Coldham, Parling- 
ton, and, though last not least, Hamsterley. 



* Mr. Townley, the proprietor of the noble collection of 
antiquities now in the British Museum. 



96 LETTER FROM THE 



TO SIR. T. GASCOIGNE. 

August, 1790. 
I have been roaming about on visits— to Castle 
Eden, Burdon's place, where there is a fine 
down susceptible of much improvement, a good 
house, and trees growing well down to the sea ; 
thence to the election at Durham, where a ball 
was given to Burdon and Milbanke. 

My next visit was to Hesley side, Mr. Charl- 
ton's. The destruction of wood on the Tynedale 
within my memory is prodigious. Charlton has 
re-established part of his, and Sir Edward made 
large plantations at Mounces ; all the rest is 
neglected. The cattle there are fond of rushes 
made into hay, and grass of Parnassus is common 
in wet spots. 

At Axwell we had George Clavering, whose 
queer speeches of the bull kind are very 
entertaining. I must tell you a few of them. A 
lady was there who suckled her child, and this 
child cried a great deal. " Ah, ma'am," said 
he to her, '* I hear your little one crying for its 
ass's milk." 

Dean Digby, in answer to some person at 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 97 

table who was inquiring- his age, and saying the 
dean could not be fifty, replied, " No, no, I have 
not yet seen fifty." '* Then," said Mr. George 
Clavering, meaning to be excessively polite, and 
taking up his glass, " then, Mr. Dean, here's that 
you never may see fifty !" 

When Lady Poole, his second wife, lay ill of 
the disorder which terminated her life, all her 
acquaintance left their names at her door, to 
inquire after her. When she at last died, her 
husband called himself at the houses of those 
acquaintances, and left a message, viz. that Lady 
Poole was very much obliged to them for their 
kind inquiries, but was very sorry she could not 
return their calls, because she was dead.* 

Mr. Ralph Carr, of Dunstan-hill, (whose 
father, by-the-bye, I believe, was gardener to 
the Claverings,) recollects having seen my grand- 
mother Isabella, Lady Swinburne, walking m 
Newcastle with a mob after her, on account of her 

* Apropos of bulls, the following specimen is both rare 
and comical, and tlie more so since it was addressed to Bo- 
naparte when elected consul /or life. 

Du bonheur des Fran^ais le gage est eternel, 
Car ils auront a vie un consul immorfel. 

VOL. II. H 



98 LETTERS FROM THE 



having had thirty children. She was tall and 
very handsome, her husband swarthy and lame, 
and only came up to her elbow. 



TO THE SAME. 

3Iarch, 1791. 
We have had gay doings at Seaton Delaval, 
where the Fair Penitent was performed by the 
family. Lord Delaval acted Sciolto ; Lord Tyr- 
connel, Lothario ; Lady Tyrconnel, Calista ; Mr. 
Spearman, Altamont ; Charles Williams, Horatio ; 
Mr. Foster, Bossano; Miss Daniel, Lavinia ; and 
Miss Augusta Daniel, the maid. Spearman was 
the most ridiculous, fat, lame, monotonous Alta- 
mont that ever was seen; Mr. Foster insipid; 
the misses not capital, but the rest of the parts 
were extremely well performed. Lord Delaval 
was correct and pathetic : he even gazed at his 
wife^s picture when he swore. Lady Tyrconnel 
now and then mumbled her phrases, but looked 
the thing. Lord T. was too bulky, his coat too 
scanty, and he sawed the air over-much. Wil- 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &e. 99 

liams was manly and clear, but brogued to ex- 
cess, and straddled a great deal. After the play, 
Lord Delaval spoke an epilogue written by him- 
self, pointed and smart, alluding to the actors. 
A natural son of Lord Tyrconnel's danced and 
sang, and so did some children of Mrs. Abbs, 

After this came a strange farce, written by 
Williams and Spearman. You may judge, now 
I have told you the authors, that it could not be 
anything very wonderful, but really it was beyond 
anvthino; I ever saw or heard of: such a farrao^o 
of officers, nuns, lovers, conjurers ; ancient and 
modern times and manners all jumbled together 
hodge-podge, with a prologue by Charles Wil- 
liams, and many bacchanalian songs, for which 
indeed the farce was intended as a vehicle. 

The theatre was erected in the hall, with ele- 
gance, warmth, and comfort. The scenery was 
w^ell painted, and the dresses were good. We 
afterwards adjourned to the saloon, where above 
a hundred guests sat down to a magnificent 
supper, with abundance of various wines. There 
were some clever songs, and then dancing and 
card parties till the morning. 

h2 



100 LETTERS FROM THE 

Lord Delaval is social and agreeable. I have 
heard that Seaton Delaval was famous, when he 
was Sir Francis, for the tricks he played upon 
his visiters. One gentleman was kept in his bed 
three whole days, by making him believe it was 
not morning yet ; apple-pie beds, ducks and 
chickens in beds, and figures drest up ! It was 
a strange propensity, and not very hospitable. It 
was at last put a stop to by one of those tricks 
being the occasion of loss of reason, for a long- 
time, to a foolish young man on whom it was 
played. Amongst a large party, one person 
who was expected, and whom the young man 
knew a little, was reported to have died sudden- 
ly. His death was talked of and canvassed, every 
one but this youth being in tlie plot. In the 
middle of supper (at least when the servants had 
withdrawn) the supposed dead man appeared in 
the room, dressed in a shroud, with his face pow^- 
dered and ghastly. The young man exclaimed 
he saw him ; every one else declared they saw 
nothing ; this had so dreadful an effect upon 
the poor weak-minded youth, that he fell down in 
a fit, and when restored to life did not recover 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, 8:c. 101 

his senses. Since that time, I understand, no 
tricks have been played, which I was very glad 
of, I assure you. 

After my return home, Lord Strathmore and 
his friend Wharton dined with me from Gibside, 
and my description of the agreeable entertain- 
ment I had met with at Seaton Delaval induced 
them to entreat I would obtain permission to in- 
troduce them at the next performance, which I 
accordingly did, and they were most hospitably 
received. The play was the same as before ; only 
Williams, being ill, was doubled by Collins of 
the Shields company, and Captain Scott of the 
ai-tillery, in the farce. The play was even better 
acted by Lord Delaval and his daughter this time 
than the last, and the farce was still more de- 
testable. We had supper, and songs by a Mr. 
Smith, with horrid convulsions. The company, 
on account of the darkness of the night, staid till 
eight in the morning. 

We slept there, and returned to Newcastle in 
the afternoon of the next day to dine at the mess 
of the Scotch Greys. 

From thence I made an excursion to Ca- 



102 LETTERS FROM THE 

pheaton, which is very much improved of late, 
the house being furnished and fitted up in a 
very comfortable and expensive style. 

I found, on my return to this part of the 
country, that my introduction of Lord Strath- 
more at Seaton Delaval had been followed up, 
and that he was now completely domicilie in 
the family. The whole party sent to ask me to 
sup with them at the inn at Newcastle, after the 
guild ball. I was rather surprised to see the 
intimacy which had struck up so suddenly ; and 
a fine scene between Lady Tyrconnel and Lord 
Strathmore afforded me great amusement. The 
poor man is desperately smitten. 

I was invited to a third performance at Sea- 
ton Delaval, in which he (Lord Strathmore) 
was to take a part. The play was Othello ; the 
Moor, Lord Tyrconnel ; her ladj^ship, Desdemona, 
Lord Delaval, lago ; and Lord Strathmore, Cas- 
sio. It was very indifferently acted by all ex- 
cept Lord Delaval. The farce was " No Song- 
no Supper," and fat Spearman's coming out of 
the sack covered with flour was very laughable. 



COURTS OF rARlS, NATLEI-', &C. 103 

April 3rd, 1791. 

The whole company of players from Seaton 
Delaval are encamped at Gibside. I dined there, 
and found them as merry and jovial as ever. I 
hear that d'Hancarville has run away from Paris, 
eighty thousand pounds in debt, leaving his 
china and books to his creditors. His fine story 
of Monsieur d'Anglade making him his heir was 
all a catch, upon the strength of which he bor- 
rowed money to raise the wind, took up furni- 
ture, &c. He is now incognito at Rome, as Mr. 
Jenkins writes word, but has had a hint that he 
must be cautious what he does, as there is such 
a place as the castle St. Angelo. 

Tom Clavering has run away with and married 
a girl of Angers, Mademoiselle Galais, He was 
placed there to learn French, and she is daughter 
to the person who lets the lodgings. He is posi- 
tively bent on fulfilling his engagement.* 

* A curious anecdote is related at Angers, relative to this 
event. It appears that the young person of whom Mr. Claver- 
ing was enamoured, and had agreed to elope with, and who was 
the daughter of a wax-chandler, changed her mind, or at all 



104 LETTERS FROM THE 

i\propos of this, old George Clavering's hobby- 
horse is roads ; and if they are mentioned, all 
other ideas vanish in an instant. I was engaged 
in very serious conversation with his wife on the 
subject of this unlucky marriage of his son's. 
She was in tears, and very anxious to persuade 
me to tell what answer I had from France about 
the lady. George came up to us, and Mrs. C. 
begged him to join his entreaties to hers. I de- 
clined it, saying, things were too far gone, and I 
could not think of reporting what was possibly 
not true, and which might prejudice them agaiust 
her. " I might just as well," said I, " take a 
pistol, and attack her on the high road." 

events had not courage to leave her parents* abode at the hour 
specified. She had, however, a confidante in her cousin, to 
whom she communicated her embarrasment. This young 
lady, who it appears was secretly in love with Mr. Claver- 
ing, and who was not tormented with the same scruples, in- 
stantly made up her mind to supply her friend's place. She 
therefore muffled herself up, and, favoured by the darkness, 
safely joined the expecting and impatient lover, who instantly 
placed her in his carriage, drove off, and did not discover his 
error until the following day. It is said that the beauty and 
grace of the confidante quickly consoled him for his disap- 
|)ointment, and that he further expressed himself jjerfectly 
satisfied with his conquest. Such is the story; I do not vouch 
for its veracity. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 105 

*• Road, sir?" said George, " I can now tell 
you who is bound to repair the road at Shiel- 
row :" and away he went helter-skelter after his 
road, without our being able to stop him, or bring 
him back to the original subject. 



Sept. 1791. 

We have been spending a very agreeable time 
at Whitfield in Allandale. Allandale is a neat 
little town over the Allan, almost every building 
of which is a public-house for the miners. Whit- 
field is a large new mansion built about four 
years, the offices and stables complete, the situ- 
ation wild and beautiful, the hills being bold and 
well wooded, and the moor-land at a proper dis- 
tance in the view. A great deal of hanging- 
wood, on the left side, borders the river, and the 
uneven lawn is well dotted with trees. 

The party consisted of Mrs. Ord and her 
family, Messrs. Brandling, Ferrers, &c., and 
Fanny and myself. Theladiescamein carts to meet 
the shooters, and dined in the fields. The present 
owner's grandfather was an attorney at New- 
castle, and had a passion for hanging himself. 
The first time he was cut down by his servant ; 



106 LETTERS FROM THE 

the second time the cord broke ; but he accom- 
plished his purpose afterwards. 

I returned for my harvest-home ; the reapers 
here dress up a sheaf of corn like a woman, and 
carry it three times round the barn or the kitchen, 
singing, 

" Blest be the day that Christ was born ! 
Here's the mell of Harry Swinburne's corn." 

Then there is a large kairn supper, where the 
master of the house used to sit at the head of 
the table, and have his health drunk. 

I send you my inscription on my well iu 
Mazzunti's walk : 

NympJia loquitur. 
Qui latices nostros, lucumque invisis opacum 
Rite loci dominum jubeas saluere priorem. 
Die bona verba, precor — Quondam his errare viretis, 
Floribus aut muris intentus, ut ille solebat, 
Heu ! quoties vidi gaudentem rure paterno 
Naiadibus vaga de saxo dare fraena, retortas 
Perdumeta vias agere, aut arbuscula nudis, 
Insertare jugis, gnatis querceta futura. 
Defessus tandem delecta in valle quievit, 
Parvus ubi sacro cippus tegit ossa sub antro. 
Saepe tamen caros fontes circumvolat umbra, 
Et nunc forte levis (neu sit pavor) aethere ludit, 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 107 

Dumque calore liques, varid te ventilat ala, 
Sic grates persolvit — Abi jam, vive valeque.* 



TO MRS. SWINBURNE. 

London, Jan. 1792. 

I left Sir Thomas in good health and spirits, 

and fatter than ever. We talked a good deal about 

the plantations, and had fine weather. 

* The following is a free translation of the above, which, 
we fear, would not have gained for its author a corner in the 
Musae Etonenses. 

Stranger, that to these groves and to this fount 
May haply wander, let their former lord 
Claim thy heart's silent orison ; for he 
By this translucent stream, 'mid Nature's charms. 
Sweetly bewildered, or with willing step. 
Led by the gentle Muse, was wont to stray. 
Oft have I seen him, whilst his sparkling eye 
Dwelt with fond pride on his paternal home, 
Curb the wild wave, or through the thorny brake 
Direct the devious path, or o'er the hill 
Spread the oak's leafy honours, and in thought 
Enrich his grandsons : — now his wearied head 
Softly reposes where this sheltering vale 
Marks in its sacred cave, on sculptured stone, 
The short memento of mortality. 
Yet hovering oft, o'er scenes thro' life beloved, 
His spirit dwells, and gratefully around 
Thy sunburnt temples pours its cooling balm, 
And through the pensive foliage sighs — Adieu ! 



108 LETTERS FROM THE 

I dined, on my arrival in town, with a large 
party at the Stratford coffee-house, with Hus- 
sey, * Sheridan, Grey, Dillon, Campbell, and 
Dr. Geddes, of the Bible ; and have been since 
with Manning to Theobald's lodge, a snug box in 
a pleasant situation, belonging to Miss Smith. 

We passed over a great deal of very beautiful 
country, interspersed in all parts by the New 
River, which winds surprisingly and often unne- 
cessarily, so timorous were engineers in the early 
part of last century, and of so little value was the 
land. 

The inside of the Pantheon has been burnt to 
the ground ; the walls are left standing. The new 
Opera house in the Haymarket is a noble theatre. 
I went there with Tovvnley to see ' ' Cymon," which 
is a stupid pageantry. 

I have dined at Hussey's with Madame de 
Sillery, — (or rather Madame Brulart, for she 
calls herself by that name now, since titles 
are abolished in France,) — Mademoiselle d'Or- 
leans, Pamela and Henriette de Cercy. She 
desired her kind regards to you. I escorted them 

* Catholic Bishop of" Waterford. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 109 

next day to Townley's, to see his collection of 
busts and statues, &c. 



March 20. 

Harry is just arrived safe and sound from the 
land of tumults and confusion. The wound he 
received on the night he was at the play in the 
queen's suite, has left a mark on his forehead. 
He seems rejoiced to have got away, and by his 
account things at Paris are a great deal worse 
than we thought. He is grown tall, and promises 
to be handsome. 

Innumerable emigres are come to England. I 
see a great deal of Madame Brulart and her 
party. 

The Margravine of Anspach is come to Lon- 
don ; I saw her at the opera. She dresses in a 
particular style, with a flat handkerchief and no 
curls. She has fine eyes and good features, but 
is not pretty, in my opinion. 

I went down with Abbe Campbell to Ports- 
mouth, and saw Tom, who is discharged into the 



110 LETTERS FROM THE 

Lion, which is fitting out to take Lord Macartney 
to China. We visited the docks : there seems 
great waste in the building jobs. 

Sir George Staunton goes to China, and takes 
his son. I met him, and the two Chinese priests 
he has brought from Naples with him. He has 
taught his son Latin and Greek, by talking to 
him only, without learning grammar. These poor 
fellows were brought out of China, without leave, 
at the age of sixteen and seventeen, and when they 
return will put on their native habit, and enter 
their country unobserved. One of them is called 
LY-Pio, the other Cho Paidus. The first syllable 
of each name is that of their family. The first 
of these men was christened Jacobus. No man 
of rank in China dare avow being a Christian, or 
conform outwardly to the public worship. Yet 
in the christian chapels there are places of diffe- 
rent honours. There are two bishops in China, 
named by the king of Portugal, and public meet- 
ing-houses for Christians. 

We went in a wherry to the Isle of Wight^ and 
landed at Ryde, where there is a pretty view, 
from Windham's, up the hill. I went from 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. Ill 

thence to Chichester to visit my sister-in-law 
Mrs. Baker, and then to Sir J. Peachey's at 
West Dean. It is in a bottom, with parkish 
downs rising on every side : the tops of the 
hills are covered with plantations. 

Cowdry is a large square house enclosing a 
court, battlemented, and of the time of Henr\^ 
VIII. The hall, which is very large, and the stair- 
case not very magnificent, are sadly bedaubed and 
begilt. * There is a quantity of portraits and 
bad pictures. The situation is low, on theArun, 
a deep stream without beauty. The park is con- 
fined, or reduced and intersected, and not strik- 
ingly handsome. The country is very hilly, and 
there is a beautiful view from the heights towards 
Haslemere, like the Vale of Tarbes, woody and 
variegated. 



June 10. 

I have been staying at Bury with Madame 
Brulart, and went on to Coldham, where I 
amused myself a la Jasmin, and took a view of 

* It has since been burnt down. 



112 LETTERS FROM THE 

Lawshall church and Lavenham. The stee- 
ple part was built by the Veres in Henry 
Vllth's time ; their arms, with garter sup- 
porters, everywhere put up. The battlements 
and porch are much ornamented, but not in the 
delicate gothic manner. That style was evi- 
dently losing ground, and architectural taste 
becoming more fantastic and conceited. 

Sir H. Parker's is a large old house, with 
handsome grounds. I returned to Madame Bru- 
lart's, and then went to spend a few days at Lang- 
ham, Sir Patrick Blake's. It is a small middling 
kind of house, with grand stables. Messrs. Deane 
and Blake were there. 

They say Sheridan is in love with, and want- 
ing to marry Pamela ; but whether his red face 
will charm her is, I think, doubtful, notwithstand- 
ing his wit. 

The news is arrived of the deposition of Louis 
XVL 



Oct. 1792. 
Harry is set out for Naples with Abbe Camp- 
bell. I envy him spending the winter in that de- 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C'. 113 

licious climate, and I fancy you do the same. 
My sister Anne, the nun, is arrived from Mon- 
targis, with thirty-five other nuns. I have just 
seen them. They are in excellent spirits, and are 
ver}^ much fetees, and kindly treated by every- 
body. They landed at Brighthelmstone, where 
the Prince of Wales, as well as Mrs. Fitzherbert, 
assisted them extremely. They have the offer of 
two country-houses, and they mean to establish 
themselves at one, and take pensioners. She 
hopes we will send our children to her. She 
gave me a long account of their escape and 
adventures. 

Hussey told me a speech of one of the emi- 
gres. He remarked how poor the English lan- 
guage was, for that one word stood for three dif- 
ferent things, viz. " ship — un vaisseau ; ship — bon 
marche ; and sliip — ?/7^ wzow^ow."*' 

* This is almost as good as the story told of the artist who, 
on being desired by a rich Shropshire squire to enliven the 
picture of his castle and park with a few " ship," (Anglice, 
sheep,) took his patron at his word, and painted a fine squa- 
dron of two deckers, at anchor, on a small piece of water 
scarcely deep enough to float a swan. 

VOL. II. I 



114 LETTERS FROM THE 

Sept. 7, 1796. 

I have learnt from Huskisson that the French 
have sent over a plan of cartel, and Nepean in- 
forms me I am to be sent to France on the sub- 
ject. Ministers have ordered all prisoners on 
parole to be confined, by way of retaliation for 
Sir Sidney Smith. 

Lord Malmesbury is appointed minister pleni- 
potentiary to negotiate peace at Paris. Lord 
Spencer would not ask for me to go mider Lord 
M.'s passport, as the missions are distinct. My 
salar}' is fixed at two pounds a day, and one hun- 
dred guineas for a secretary, and all travelling 
expenses allowed, except journeys within fifty 
miles of Paris."* 



Dover, Nov. 5, 1796. 

The first time I left England to go to college 
I sailed from this very pier, as they were firing 

* Mr. Swinburne had just received his appointment as 
commissioner for the exchange of prisoners. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 115 

the guns for Guy Vaux's plot ; and I arrived here 
to-day as the same festival was celebrating. The 
guns reminded me of this coincidence of cir- 
cumstances — is it not odd ? I am almost tempted 
to sumere superhiam qucesitam meritis ; for I am 
half intoxicated with the dignity that attends me : 
letters by special messengers from the Secretary 
of State — collectors of customs in waiting — 
Danout's son-in-law, with Pat Hennesy's son, 
cringing and bowing for leave to accompany 
me — the mayor taking my orders, &c. &c. " Je 
cominencerai a me croire ne pour les grandes aven- 
tures,'"' — if my tooth does not ache, — which every 
now and then takes me off my high horse. 

I have brought a young man as secretary, who 
seems sensible, and likely to do well. Adieu ; I 
do not believe I shall be able to write from 
Calais ; but if you do not hear of the Princess 
Augusta going to the bottom, you may conclude 
I am safely landed in Tigerland. God bless 
you all : you shall have a full account of Paris 
renouvelle, when I have seen it. 



I 2 



116 LITTERS FROM THK 

Calais, Nov. 6. 

We had the finest passage imaginable, of 
four hours — not a sail shifted, or a rough 
wave — the sun shining, and the wind warm — 
both coasts as clear as rockwater, and seen at the 
same time. The price was very high ; five and 
twenty guineas for one of Minet's boats. 

When we arrived, the quay was covered wnth 
men, in as many strange attires as if we had 
come to a rendezvous of all the nations of the 
earth. Scarcely two were equipped alike: most 
of them were dressed in cloaks, large wrappers, 
greatcoats, rugs, &c., and muffled up as if they 
were in Iceland. The strange diversity of hats 
and caps (most of the former enormous) was truly 
comical. There were no red caps among them. 

At the custom-house they offered for sale, 
and prudence induced us to purchase, little tri- 
color cockades, at fifteen sous a piece, which 
we placed on the side of the crowns of our hats. 

It was Sunday, and Sunday is observed here, 
for nobody will have anything to say to Decades,* 

* The revolutionary months were divided into three de- 
cades, or epochs of ten days each, thus making three hun- 



COURTS OF PARIS. NAPLKS, &C. 117 

or the Dimanche de Robespiere, although his in- 
scription, " Le peuple francais reconnait Vetre 
suprhme, et Vhnmortalite de I'ame* still appears 
upon the churches. 

No soldiers or people accompanied us to the 
inn, but we were escorted by the innkeeper into 
the Hotel de Ville, where I wrote myself down, 
and my suite. All was very civil and easy — no 
curiosity, no noise, nor to this moment have we 
been called des Anglais, accosted, or taken the 
least notice of. A great apathy, despair, or in- 
difference, seems to have got the better of all the 
spirit of the French. Except not meeting any 
priests or friars, everything appears much as it 

dred and sixty. The remaining five days were called jours 
complementaires, and were devoted to feasting. The names 
of these months, the first of which commenced on the 22d 
of Sept. 1792, common style, were, Vendemiaire, Brumaire, 
Frimaire, Nivose, Pluviose, Ventose, Germinal, Floreal, Prai- 
rial, Messidor, Thermidor, and Fructidor; so that Vende- 
miaire was composed partly of September and partly of Oc- 
tober. The 1st of Vendemiaire anno 1 of the Republic, cor- 
responded with the 22d Sept. 1792, and the 30th Fructidor 
with the 16th of Sept. 179:3. 

* It was that foul miscreant who said upon some occa- 
sion, in order to show that he believed in a divinity, " Si 
Dleu iiexistoit pas, ilfaudroit Vinvenler .'" 



118 LETTERS FROM THE 

was. The lands are fully cultivated, but tliere 
are few labourers of the youtliful or middle age. 

In the principal church a priest was saying- 
mass, sailors and women hearing it. The pictures 
and images of saints remain. The west end of the 
nave had been railed off, to be converted into one 
of Robespierre's temples, but it is now shut up. 

The people here, not in office, pay little atten- 
tion to the new calendar, as far as relates to 
decades ; but they are obliged to adopt the 
names of the months. 

The inhabitants of Calais refused, in the days 
of terror, to admit Joseph le Bon,* which saved 
nlany lives. 

I heard the bells ring, but no one is obliged 
to shut up shop, or attend any public service, on 
the Decade, or revolutionary sabbath. 

My secretary, and Major Gall, whom Mr. 
Dundas had desired that I would pass off as an 
additional one, that he'might reach Paris in safety, 

* Joseph le Bon, one of the most execrable of the ter- 
rorists. He was born at Arras in 1765, and was therefore 
well known throughout the Pas de Calais. He was guillo- 
tined on the iJth Oct. 1795, 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &;c. 119 

and bring away his daughters, were described at 
the municipalite as to their age and persons, but 
I was not required to go. It is rather strange, 
and almost provoking, that the people show so 
little curiosity about us. There is little stir in 
the town, and no singing, and no rioting. I have 
hired a coach to take us to Paris, at one hundred 
and eight livres, 



Chantilly, Nov. 10, 1796. 

We lodged at Boulogne with Mrs. Knowles, 
who was two years in prison, and has lost her fat, 
but not her tongue, nor her hatred of those she 
lives amongst. There is little to be earned, and 
many disconsolate poor. The few persons we 
have spoken with have little hopes of peace. 
Many deserters are lurking about the woods, and 
there are continual robberies and murders. We 
have not travelled half an hour in the dark, as 
you may see by the slowness of our journey. 

There is no great danger of any feats to be 
done in the invasion way, as tliey cannot get 
their men to go on board. There are gun-boats 



120 LKTTERS FROM THE 

at Boulogne for the defence of the coast, but, as 
there is no pay, the officers do nothing, and the 
men desert. 

I am surprised that Mrs. Knowles, with her 
abuse of the French, and her rash talk, has kept 
her head on her shoulders. She begged relief 
for Mr. Cannon, who is in prison with his four 
children, and very ill off for everything. 

This country is sadly depopulated since the 
revolution. Ambleteux alone has lost three hun- 
dred men fit to bear arms. At Amiens the ma- 
sons appeared to be pulling down some churches, 
but the cathedral is not at all injured. 

We have just taken a walk round this deso- 
late place, which is all but demolished. Over 
the fountain, in the stables, is a cartoon, and upon 
it is written, " Bandeau mis sur un norn ahhorre 
{Conde) iKir les Charrois de la Repuhllqiie.* 

The leaden pipes are carried off, the statues 

* The Charrois were the society or administration who 
contracted to supply the republican armies with hospital 
wagons, &c. Thence their name. Some members of this 
society, the head-quarters of which were at Compiegne, suf- 
fered persecution, for having lent their wagons to conceal 
and favour the escape of proscripts. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 1*2 1 

and vases broken, the arcades destroyed, and the 
equestrian statue of the Connetable de Mont- 
morency melted down. The forest is full of de- 
serters and banditti. A family the other day was 
robbed and murdered at Villeneuve, near this 
place. 



Paris, Nov. 11, 1796. 

We arrived here at twelve this mornino; — had 
delightful weather — no examination of passport 
or stoppage of any kmd at the barrieres — nobody 
set over us. We lodge at la Maison des Etran- 
gers, Rue Vivienne. The word hotel is pro- 
scribed, and maisoji substituted. 

Some thieves that call themselves the twelve 
posts of the Republic sent us a copy of verses, 
and went away satisfied with half-a- crown, as 
were the poissardes, who also offered a galima- 
thias copy of verses, 

I have seen Lord Malmsbury, who desires me 
to take Sir Sidne}^ Smith's aHair in hand, as he 
found he could make nothing of it.* I wrote to 

* yir Sidney Smith was then a close prisoner in the Temple. 



122 LETTERS FROM THE 

inform Trnguet, the minister of marine, of my 
arrival, and an appointment is made for to-mor- 
row. Lord M. says we must keep separate as 
much as we can ; as his hopes are in me, and I 
shall be able to speak and be spoken to, which 
he cannot, for he sees nobody. God knows whe- 
ther an}" mediating services of mine will be fairly 
set to my account or not ; possibly not; nor do 
I care : at all events I must have his good word, 
t have been walkino; about as freelv as in Lon- 
don. Paris in this quarter is crowded more 
than ever, but both men and women are sad 
frights. The women dress shockingly, with im- 
mense bushy periwigs, quite discordant with 
their complexions and eyebrows; forming either 
a large chignon, or a great horse-tail behind, and 
brought very long over their faces in the front, 
only a little parted in the middle of the forehead, 
•just like the men in Charles the Second's days; 
owls in ivy bushes. They wear upon this, large 
flapping caps or mobs, and over all a chip hat, 
like an umbrella, squeezed down at the sides, and 
staring up in front, lined with yellow, scarlet, or 
some such glaring colour. Shawls and blankets 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 123 

projecting necks, black and gray stockings, and 
no heels. 



Nov. 12, 1796. 

I have seen I'Abbe Tersan, who is just as we 
left him, among his books and medals, as lively 
as ever.* His section saved him. I have also 
seen the bookseller Barrois, Mr. Kellet, Dr. 
Gem, and Perregaux the banker. 

The Directory is putting the Luxembourg Pa- 
lace into thorough repair. The convent of the 
Dominicans (I'antre des Jacobins) is destroyed, 
and part of the gardens of the Chartreuse is 
being added to that of the Luxembourg. The 
new bridge of La Paix, La Revolution, or Louis 
XVL, is finished ; but the preserving the Palais 
Bourbon for a house for the cinq cens makes the 
approach from and to the south very awkward 
and twisting. 

* Charles Philip de Tersan, a learned antiquarian and man 
of extraordinary research ; the more remarkable, since he 
never published any work on these subjects, although no one 
possessed more materials or greater capabilities. He died at 
a very advanced age in 1819. 



124 LETTERS FROM THE 

My banker tells me I am looked upon to be a 
more confidential man of Mr, Pitt's than Lord M. 
himself; quite his ame damnee. I think if they 
are not more cunning in other things than in this 
guess, on en aura hon marche. Is it not laugh- 
able? 

Truguet's answer to my application for an au- 
dience came to me enclosed in a bit of brown 
paper. He appointed me to be with him at three 
o'clock to-day.* I was introduced to him by 
Monsieur Coltrone, " chef de la troisieme divi- 
sion." He is a smart young beau, ver}'^ polite and 
chatt}' ; but upon my bringing Sir Sidney Smith 
upon the tapis^ he bounced up in a violent passion, 
said he had not understood that I was to have any- 
thing to say to that business, and expressed an idea 
that it could not be settled till the cartel was fixed. 

I had a good deal of talk with him after that 
explosion, and when calmer, he assured me 
everything would be done that I could wish. I 

* Laurent J. Francois Truguet, born at Toulon, created 
Count in 1814, Peer in 1819, and Admiral (equivalent to 
Marshal) in 1831. He commenced his career in the navy 
as midshipman, in 1765, and still lives. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 125 

am to make an official request for leave to visit 
prisons, and for lists of the prisoners. He pro- 
mised me a passport for Major Gall to return to 
England, as I represented him in so bad a state 
of health as to be of no use to me as a secretary. 

I dined afterwards with Lord Malmesburv, 
who desires me to ask for leave to see Sir Sidney 
Smith. I know I shall be refused ; but however 
disagreeable it maj- be to do it with the certainty 
of a rebuff, perhaps an uncivil one, I must com- 
ply. Sir S. is in the Temple " au secret" but 
well lodged. I had a letter from him to-day. 
Lord M. says his greatest dependence is on me. 
He has been very impatient for my arrival, for 
he has no intercourse with any one, knows 
nobody, and has a disagreeable message to deli- 
ver, if I do not succeed with regard to Sir S. 
So the load is thrown upon poor Pillgarlick. 

So much for politics. All the nonsense and 
observations I make shall be set down as they 
occur ; — so make the best you can of the farrago. 

Monsieur Le Moinc* is alive near Paris, and 

* Previously one of the gentilhommes de la chambre to 
Louis XVI. 



1-26 LETTERS FROM THE 

Perregaux has promised to find him out for me. 
He says he is very poor. All the Misses Moore 
are dead. Adieu. 



Nov. 15, 1796. 
Though I know not when this will go, I shall 
begin it, as ix journal de betises. Yesterday seve- 
ral hundred young men were arrested because 
they had plaited curls behind their ears, con- 
strued to be the same as tresses, the signs of 
party. 

Girandot the banker's house was robbed the 
night before last of a large sum in specie, the 
dog poisoned, &c. The Directory has washed the 
head of (Anglice, reprimanded) Cochon, the mi- 
nister of police, for his neglect. Chevalier 
Jerningham's property is sold, therefore a hope- 
less case. Poor Laville is where he was, but 
instead of being a fermier general, he is a re- 
tail snufFseller, a very poor livelihood. 

Le Moine was never even in prison. He is at 
Montague, and his wife at Versailles. I have 
written to her. I dined to-day with I'Abbe 



COURTS OF PARIS, AAPLES, &C. 1'27 

Tersan, who talked me to sleep. Not being ac- 
customed, of late, to such rapidity of verbiage, 
I could not follow liim enough to understand 
him. He escaped the fury of the terrorists by 
lying hid up five pair of stairs among his books. 
His section protected and answered for him. 

Vaillant, who has published his Travels in 
Africa, is (secundum Tersan) an illiterate and 
ignorant man, and the book is no more his com- 
position than it is mine. He knows nothing of 
natural history, &c., and is no more than a mere 
tireur d'oiseaux. He had made no notes, but dic- 
tated what he could remember or invent to one 
Varon, afaiseur here, who cooked up a book for 
him. When he ran av.ay to Holland, Monsieur 
Tersinck employed him, by sending him to the 
Cape to collect birds for him. 

The French ministry have Lord Malmesbury's 
letters and notes translated, and published regu- 
larly in the public journals. In his correspond- 
ence with La Croix, the latter does not appear 
to advantage, for his notes are peevish and 
childish.* If they do no better, I shall begin to 

* J. P de la Croix, born in 1754, and originally bred to 



128 LETTERS FROM THE 

tliink men may overturn a government and con- 
quer countries without being capable of acting 
wisely in quiet times, and conducting business 
with their equals. 



Nov. IQth. 

I was last night at the Theatre de la Rue Fey- 
deau, where the Comedie Fran^aise is now esta- 
blished. Mesderaoiselles Contat and Mole were 
delightful in the Celibataire. The vulgarity of 
appearance in the audience, and the gloominess 
of the house, were shocking ; men and women 
pele-mele in the boxes, and in hats ; some of the 
men in boots and greatcoats. They still re- 
tained enough of old politeness to take off their 
hats, unless in the back seats. Indeed, upon 
inquiry, I found that most of them were of the 
privileged class. 

The pit was full of the dirtiest of the dirty ; 

the bar. He was a man of undoubted abilities. Having em- 
braced the popular cause, he rose from place to place to that 
of minister for foreign affairs. He was one of those most hos- 
tile to the royal family, voted the king's death, and in his turn 
was guillotined with Danton, on the 8tli April 1794. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &e. 129 

horrid black-lookinj^ creatures. The decorations 
are bad, and one hears but poorly. 

As I went in, a fellow was hawking about a 
tragedy of the death of Louis XVI. I perceived 
that the audience applauded, whenever a passage 
in the play seemed to allude to terrorism or im- 
prisonment. 

My man passed the night in the guard-house, 
for being out without his passport, and speaking 
English. 

I dined to-da}^ at Monsieur Formalague's, once 
a clerk to Boyd, with some noted people, viz. 
Mathieu Languinais, Rcederer, late a Counsellor 
of Metz, editor of I'Historien, Bourgoign, author 
of the Essay on Spain, &:c. They talked away 
as Frenchmen always did ; morals, philosophy, 
&;c. — then mirth and wit — then dispute and argu- 
ment. They are all violently in opposition to the 
directory— at least to outward appearance. They 
are concerned with the press, and profess anti- 
Jacobinism. The " Historien" is a clever, violent 
publication. Bourgoign was envoy at the Hague, 
and in Spain, where he wrote his travels. Forma- 
laoues is a oieat friend of Cottrau, who was to 

VOL. II. K 



130 LETIERS FROM I'HI-: 

have dined there, but was prevented. I find the 
directory have given him two adjo'ints, to combat 
poor me. I hope a plain tale will put them 
down ; however, I am glad they are in good hu- 
mour, for I was half afraid I had got too far about 

Sir Sidney Smith. Every one here dines now 

at five o'clock. 



November 17, 1796. 

I have been running about Paris just as for- 
merly. The beggars call me milord. How dull 
— how gloomy Paris is ! All its hurry and 
crowds seem concentrated round the focus of this 
neighbourhood. The rest of the town is deserted. 
The Fauxbourg St. Germain can never recover. 

I had been told by English republicans and 
Americans, that wonderful things had been done, 
and magnificent works undertaken. I see many 
things pulled down, but except a repair in the 
roof of the Luxembourg, the alteration of the 
palais Bourbon, and the finishing of the bridge, I 
have not seen one new stone put upon another. 

There are wood and plaster statues where 
brass and marble stood, dead poplar trees of 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, 8ct'. 131 

liberty,* and the words " proprietS nationale' 
upon more than half the houses. These are the 
present ornaments of Paris. 

The Hotel du Pare Royal is now a printing- 
house; I'Hotel de I'Universite an office for the 
artillery. The Fauxbourg- St. Germain is quite 
depopulated ; its hotels almost all seized by go- 
vernment, and the streets near the Boulevard are 
choked with weeds. There is little bustle, except 
about the Palais de I'Egalite, which is a com- 
plete receptacle of filth. The buildings about it 
are ruinous. Poor Bablot, of the " Pare royal,'* 
died of a broken heart. 

I have been at the site of the Bastille, now a 
timber-yard. As there have been fifty-seven 
new prisons instituted in Paris, I think I may 
say that the Parisians have uselessly destroyed an 
ornament of their town. 

I am told there are weekly balls, pai' ahonne- 
ment of thirty-six francs, for the winter, where the 
ladies appear in fancy dresses, chiefly as nymphs 

* Similar ornaments are still permitted to disfigure three of 
the handsomest portions of Brussels. All persons in that city 
unite in condemning their being preserved ; but no one has 
the good taste or courage to propose their removal. 

K 2 



132 LETTERS FROM THE 

with flesh-coloured clothing. The complexion of 
the women seems to me to be much improved, 
and there is not such a ei[uantity of rouge used as 
formerly. 

Dr. Gem was with me yesterday. He was 
tliree months in prison^ locked up in the same 
room with Mrs. Elliott (Dolly the tall) and her 
dogs.* He believes in a general republicanism 
over the west of Europe. The reason of his 
calling upon me was, that he desired to go to 
England, and had applied to Lord Malmesbury 
to get him a passport, that he might accompany 
him, should he take his departure suddenly. 
Lord M. told him he must apply to me for that 
purpose, as 1 was the only person likely to suc- 
ceed in obtaining anything. I find, from this and 
other quarters, that Lord M. has some opinion of 
me as a conciliator. 

I have just had a visit from poor Dominick 
Meade, who is grown very thin ; and have called 
on St. Foix, and on Madame de Laborde de Marc- 
ville, and her daughter, both looking very well, 1 
have promised to dine with them. To-da}- I dined 

* IMo'Jier of the first Lady C Bentinck* 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &.C. 1.'3 3 

with Lord Malmesbtiry. Last night, I was in his 
box aux Itallens. It was " Stratonice et Fan- 
chette." Madame Dugazon did not act. 

The fiacres are much neater tlian they used to 
be. There is no regulated fare, therefore 
one makes a bargain on stei)})ing into these 
motley chariots. 

They say General d'Alvinzi* is coming down 
in two columns, with a very formidable force, 
upon Buonaparte, who has only 23,000 men left, 
and perhaps you will soon hear of some great 
derangement in the French projects in that part 
of the world. Basile is still at Menil, poor and 
almost blind. 

La Mere Gertrudef came the other day from 
Passy on foot, though past eighty, to see Madame 
de Laborde. The latter is reinstated in all her 
possessions. Madame de Beauveau lives in a 
small house at St Germain. 

* Field Marshal d'Alvinzi commanded a division in 
Laudolin's army, and was afterwards commander in chief at 
Rivoli and Areola. He was much respected, though not 
successful as a military man. He died in 1810, aged 84. 

-|- Ex-abbess of the UrsuHne convent, where Mrs. Swin- 
burne was a pensionnaire. 



134 LETTERS FROM THE 

The Dunkirk flotilla, object of our alarms, 
has been shipwrecked on its own coast. There 
has been an engagement with the Spanish fleet, 
but as yet I do not know the particulars. 

I have been waited upon by " Les Dames de la 
Halle," but not kissed, for I stopped their mouths 
with a piece of money. I have also had a fine 
copy of doggrel verses addressed to me, which 
are to be publislied, and I suppose will enter into 
some collection, as a specimen of V esprit dii dix- 
huitihne siecle. Here they are : 

Liberie— Egalite, 
Republique Francaise, 

Fraternite ; 

Honneur et hommage, 

Presentes au vertueux Monsieur 

Swinburne, a I'occasion de 

Son arrivee a Paris, pour le 

Cartel d'Ecbange. 

Publicite. 

Oui, pour notre patrie, 

Chere a votre grand coeur, 
Vous employe/, la vie, 

A faire son bonbeur. 

Swinburne, qu'on revere, 

De notre bien 
Ami le plus sincere, 

Et le soutien, 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 135 

Acceptez notre zele, 
Dans ces trop faibles traits, 

Nous servant de modele, 
Nous goutons vos bienfaits. 

Nous publirons sans cesse 

Tous vos grands faits, 
Votre grande tendresse 

Pour les Fran^ais. 

Agriez, Monsieur^ Vhommage du a vos vertus 
et a votre merite, puisque votre importante mis- 
sion doit contribuer a amHiorer notre sort; daignez 
aussi agreer notre respect profond. 
Signe 
Les 12 Auteurs Nouvellistes Repiihlicains. 

I cannot very well tell what all these compli- 
ments are about, and feel something like Sancho 
in the island of Barataria. 

At dinner, at Perregaux's, I met Senovert, who 
was sent last year with Monneson, to try if they 
could open a negotiation for peace, but got no 
farther than Canterbury. 

Lord Malmesbury m'accable d'honniteth, and 
wishes me to dine with him every day. 

I have asked leave officially to see Sir Sid- 
ney Smith, and expect it to be granted, and 



136 LETIERS FROM THE 

that I shall be able to effect his liberation upon 
parole, for the face of things seems much sof 
tened. 

I spent last evening at Madame de la Live's, 
with all the cousins and tantes, very agreeably. 

La petite Laborde is here, and I shall call on 
her to-morrow. Auguste, her son, turned out 
very ill, and some esclandre of his was the cause 
of his father's being dragged from his hiding- 
place, and guillotined. 

Poor La Celle* is sold to a paper merchant, the 
church destroyed, and the monastery turned into 
a rag warehouse. Watt Smith, brother to Mrs. 
Fitzherbert, is here, married, oupeu s'enfaut, to a 
Madame Notaire. 



Nov. 18,1796. 
I just now saw poor little Madame de Laborde, 

the picture of misery and desolation. She cried 

bitterly. Her husband might have been saved, 

for the municipality of Rouen offered to let him 

* The college where Mr. Swinburne was educated. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 137 

remain five days longer, but he had been so long 
in prison, that he was sick of existence, and 
wished to be tried, and the matter ended one 
way or the other.* He was sent to Paris, and 
executed on the fifth day after Robespierre was 
dethroned, t 

What happiness to others that day must have 
brought ! Mrs. Tinker (mother of Harvey 
Aston) was in prison at the time, with innume- 
rable other people ; amongst them a gentleman 
dying of a quinsy in the throat, and given over. 
On the delightful news reaching her, she ran to 

* Mr. de Laborde was a fermier general, and was much es- 
teemed. His only daughter married Count Charles de Noailles, 

f Mr. Fontin Desodoards, in his treatise on the French 
revolution, says of this monster of blood and iniquity : 
" He was more ferocious than Nero, and more credulous than 
Claudius. His exterior was cold, and his manners embar- 
rassed. He was insensible to friendship, pity, or remorse. 
His look was sinister, and his conversation insignificant. His 
temper was irrascible, his character pusillanimous, and his ta- 
lents limited ; but his ambition was immeasurable, and his 
blood-thirstiness and depravity insatiable." Providence, after 
permitting him to desolate France during several months, at 
length held forth its avenging hand. He was guillotined 
upon the 27th July, 1794, (9th Thermidor) in his 36th 
year. 



138 LETTERS FROM THE 

the sick man, caW'mg out, '* vivez ! vivez Mon- 
sieur ! car Robespierre est mort. The man was 
so startled at this that he burst into a violent fit 
of hysterical laughter, which burst the quinsy, 
and saved his life. 

This epitaph was made on Robespierre : 

Passant, ne plaignez pas son sort, 
S'il eut vecu, vous seriez mort. 

Monsieur deHautefort called on me yesterday, 
and begged his compliments. All his family 
were put to death. 

I have written a memoir about Sir Sidney 
Smith, much approved of by Lord M. I myself 
think it well done, and hope it will make impres- 
sion, for the Directory are much relaxed about 
Sir S. He has now the whole of the Temple to 
range in, and liberty of writing, &,c. ; he is also 
allowed his secretary. 



Nov. 20. 
Yesterday I dined and went with Lord M. to 
the opera, which is now in the Rue de la Loi, 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, 8cc. 139 

(Richelieu,) and as handsome a salle as ever I 
saw. It was not an opera, but a concert, which 
is all the ton, and the dress night for the women. 
After it, the ballet of Telemaque, in which the 
women danced divinely. Vestris, the only man 
dancer, has no pantomime, and I was soon tired 
of his bounds, and his tours deforce. The house 
was extremely crowded. Major Gall, who is 
magnijique, gave twenty francs for one of the last 
tickets to be had. It was very well lighted, and 
the company well dressed. 

MadameTallienwas in the Spanish ambassador's 
box opposite to us,* very showy, with a spangled 

* Theresia de Cabarus (Madame Tallien) was a Spaniard 
by birth. She was married, before the revolution, to a M. 
de Fontenoy, of Rouen, from whom she was subsequently 
divorced, not from bad conduct on her part, but by mutual 
accord. Being cast into prison during the reign of terror, 
she married Tallien in order to save her life, and she had thus 
many opportunities of performing acts of benevolence ; — so 
much so, that she acquired the name of " Notre bonne dame 
de Thermidor," in allusion to the lives she saved during that 
hideous period. She was afterwards divorced from Tallien, 
whom she is unjustly stated to have abandoned in his dis- 
tress. In due time she married Francis Joseph de Caraman, 
Prince de Chimay. She died at her husband's chateau of 
Chimay, near iVJons, in 1836, universally regretted. 



MO LETILRS FROM THE 

muslin o'own and a scarlet cloak. She has a fine 
face and figure, and was not at all outrte in her 
decoration. Her very black hair was plaited 
with gold ribbon, and ringlets fell over her fore- 
head and neck ; rather a short waist, her arms 
bare, and a great breadth of shoulders displayed. 
She was altogether very much decoUetee, which is 
the fashion of tlie day. 

On the same line with her, au premier, and 
among the well dressed, were twoor three servant- 
looking women en bonnets de paysannes. By 
their appearance, they must have been trades- 
men's wives of the lowest class. The fine ladies 
wear feathers and no rouge. The men in the 
boxes were like gentlemen in England ; those in 
the pit like what French laquais were formerly 
on a rainy day. 

The Marquis del Campo* was at the opera, 
without his star. His servility is disgusting, even 
to the men in power. He affects equality so 
much, that his table is presided by Mademoiselle 
Chalete, the tall opera-dancer. He placed her 

* The Spanish ambassador. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLllS, &C. 141 

there on a great day, when Mrs. Monro, 
the American ambassadress, and other modest 
ladies, dined with him. As soon as their 
husbands apprized them of it, they left the com- 
pany. 

The Directory, who have an interest in the 
opera, regularly carry off all tlie cash taken at 
the door. 

Madame de Maulde was with me this morning ; 
she is well and sprightly, has saved her landed 
propert)^ and lost what she placed out. Madame 
d'Anglures is in possession of her estates, and 
lives quietly upon them. 

I do not know whether you heard at the time, 
that the day of the king's execution was as dark as 
pitch, quite overcast and black, without wind or 
cloud, and not a sound in the streets until theguns 
were fired. That on which the queen died was 
as fine as possible, and no one seemed to care a 
halfpenny. This is only accounted for by the 
different seasons of the year, and the habits con- 
tracted from seeing so much bloodshed. I have 
also been desired to note that it was exactly fifty 
davs from Robespierre's making liis harangue 



142 LETTERS FROM THE 

from the throne in the Tuilleries, and declaring 
that there was a supreme being, to the day of 
his death, which corresponds with the cinquant- 
aine de Paques. I don't well understand the 
combination, but garrit amies ex re fahellas 
vicino. 

I have had a melancholy letter from the poor 
Marechale de Beauveau. She says she cannot 
press me to visit " une personne que vous avez 
laissee si heureuse, et que vous trouverez si mi- 
serable par la perte qu'elle a faite de tout ce qui 
I'attachait a la vie. Les autres maux sont sup- 
portables ; celui-la seul ote le gout de I'existence. 
Je vous remercie beaucoup des nouvelles que 
vous me donnez de deux personnes qui m'inte- 
ressent tant. Recevez I'assurance bien sincere du 
souvenir que je conserverai toujours de ce tenis 
ou j'ai eu le bonheur de connoitre Madame Swin- 
burne et vous, (Sec. 

I wish in your next letter you wouldwriteme a 
few lines, which I could cut out and send her. 

I am quite melted with her sorrowful letter ; 
*' mais tu Vas voulu, George Dandin' — one might 
say to her. 



COURTS OF PARIS, XAPLKS, &.C.. 143 

By all I can learn, poor Le Maitre* was guil- 
lotined. 

Madame de Boisgibault is remarried to a 
Swiss banker. Divorces are very easy things 
here. A young lady was married the other day, 
with the consent of her mothei and guardians ; 
but soon after their return from the wedding 
she disappeared, leaving a message for her bride- 
groom, that she meant to be divorced the next 
day, as she had only married to get out of her 
mother's clutches. 

I must tell you another trait : a young man 
and woman were attached to each other, but 
could not marry because they had not a shilling. 
There was an old aunt of the girl's, who had a 
great deal of money, and who was in love with 
the young man. He encouraged her passion, 
and at last consented to be her husband, on con- 
dition she made over all her property to him on 
their marriage. She did so ; they were married, 
and her fortune put in his power. No sooner was 

* The same who was ten years in the Bastille, for publish- 
ing a prophecy concerning the Bourbons. 



144 LETIERS FROM THK 

this done than he abandoned her, procured a 
divorce, and married her niece. 

The Bkie nuns are quiet in their house, and 
live upon what they can earn. 

Lord Malmesbury is extremely attentive to 
me, and I hope I may be able to do him an es- 
sential service, by bringing Sir Sidney Smith's 
affair to a proper determination. I have every 
reason to expect I shall succeed. The French 
ministers are exceedingly softened, and I be- 
lieve that I shall to-morrow have leave to see 
liim. 

The Jacobins appear to be the strongest in 
the Conseil des Anciens, as appears by the rejec- 
tion of the petition for tlie examination into 
abuses. 

The ministers seem to go au devant cle mes 
souhaits ; but they have overdone it, for they 
have named three chefs de bureau to treat with 
me. I wish they were three chefs de cuisine My 
appartment here, in the Maison des Etraugers, is 
very dear, and I shall remove from thence as 
soon as I return from my tour, or know that I 
am to stay here some time. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 145 

I dined to-day with Madame de Laboide. 



Nov. 21, 1796. 

f have been with tlie minister this morning, 
and have carried the point as to seeing Sir Sid- 
ney Smith. My letter for his release is also laid 
before the Directoire Executif, and I hope will 
have its effect upon them. I shall probably have 
an interview with some of them officially, or by 
way of conversation. I liave also obtained a 
passport for Major Gall, who sets out with his 
two daughters in a day or two, and will take tliis 
packet. 

I heard a thing to-day which hurts me very 
much, — that the sous-gouverneur des pages du roi 
(d'Alvimar) lost his life, for having a letter of 
mine found among his papers. He must have 
kept it a long time, for I never wrote to him 
since May 1792. 

Half the houses in Paris are confiscated. If 
the words Unite, Indivisibility de la Republique^ 
are upon it, it is a sign the house is employed in 

VOL. II. L 



146 LETTERS FROM THE 

the public service, or that it is given to some- 
body under that pretext. If '■^ propriete nationale" 
is inscribed, it means that it is not yet sold. 

Many churches are pulled down. People buy 
them and estates, and begin repaying them- 
selves the money advanced as first payment, by 
dilapidation and cutting down timber, &c. So 
that, if ever they were to be ousted, they would 
still have made an excellent bargain. * 

Think of Major Gall's daughters having been 
put in prison as accomplices in the taking of 
Toulon ! 



Nov. 22, 179G. 
I have received Gall's passport, and an evasive 
answer about Smith. 

" Jjes colonnes mobiles cles Phxs de famille" 
are ordered out, to garrison Landau, and reinforce 
the army in Italy. 

Madame de Talaru and Cesarina have called 

* Most of the chateaux were purchased with assignats by a 
company, called la batide noir, from their pulling down the 
buildings and devastating the woods. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 147 

on me. The latter is grown a stout, bold-looking 
girl — her chin a la Neron.. During the time of 
terror, when they were hiding themselves, and 
lived in constant fear and trembling, the mother 
was exhorting the girl to attend to her religious 
exercises. *' Ah, maman /'* she said, " com- 
ment est-ce quon pourroit penser d faire son salut 
a present V 

A journal (I know not which) has found out 
that I had a son, page to Louis XVI., and that I 
and Lord Malmesbury are selected for our astuce 
and manque defoi ; so it requests every one to be 
upon their guard against us. As all I say and 
do may be known on the Pont Neuf if they like 
it, you may be sure such stuff gives me no unea- 
siness. 

Madame Du Paty has married her daughter 
Leonora to the son of Elie de Beaumont. Made- 
moiselle d'Arbouville is in quiet possession of her 
property, and nobody knows the fate of her 
brother, poor Crooknose. The young Du Patys 
have been employed in planning, &c., upon the 
frontiers. 

L 2 



148 LETTERS FROM THE 

Nov. 24. 

1 dined and spent a merry evening at Madame 
de Maulde's. Her daughter Eugenie is a very 
fine girl. M. de Maulde resides at Melun, and 
deals in wood and charcoal, 

I have a letter from M. le Moine and his wife, 
full of friendship and tenderness. Her health is 
much impaired. They live at Mortagne, en 
Perche, upon the proceeds of a small estate in 
that neighhourhood, and contrive to make it do. 
Alas ! why am I poor? I mean to go and see 
their daughter, Madame des Entelles. 

I find Dominick Meade has a madame chez 
lui ; for he sent me a letter from a young man of 
twenty-five who lives near him, quite a Nicode- 
mus or grand cousin ; and as it was addressed to 
an uncle at Martinees, he desired me to read -it 
first, leat it should contain anything improper. I 
accordingly opened it, and found mention of 
Monsieur M.Qdidie, Anglais- Americain, fort aima- 
hle homme, ainsi que Madame son epouse." The 
letter is worthy the pen of a comic writer, and 
I must copy one sentence. " Si tu (to his uncle, 
who is every now and then vous) me voyait, tu 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 140 

lie me reconnaitroit plus, tant je siiis change. Je 
jouis d'line bonne sante, gras et gros comme un 
moine Benedictin. J'ai les cheveux a la mode, 
long de cote comme des oreilles de chien. Je suis 
plus degourdi qu'a ma pension, on j'avois Fair 
d'un grand nigaud; la moindre parole que je 
vouloisparleron m'imposait silence, en disant que 
j'etais une bete, &c. &c. 



Nov. 26, 1796. 

I have a large parcel by the messenger, and 
am rather surprised at receiving no letters from 
you ; but I had one from Mr. Marsh, and two 
from Lord Spencer, kind and confidential. Lord 
Malmesbury read me part of his despatch to-day, 
in which he speaks very handsomely of me to 
Lord Grenville. The minister here has given me 
leave to see Sir Sidney Smith, but not the order 
for it, without which I cannot get admittance. 1 
expect it to-morrow. 

I find, as far as my acquaintances go, that in 
Paris there are very few republicans — almost all 
are Jacobins or royalists. The former have great 



150 LETTERS FROM THE 

force, and the Directory tries to keep itself up 
by balancing one party against the other. There 
is great confusion and distress in the govern- 
ment. 

Paris, without police, is full of robbers and 
murderers. Last night at seven o'clock a woman 
was assassinated in her own room, not far from 
lis. There is a great want of money ; so much so, 
as to make it necessary for government to seize 
upon the recette at the opera. 

I went yesterday to see the Museum or Gale- 
rie du Louvre. The dimensions are wonderful, 
and contain crowds of chef-d'ceuvres, mixed with 
bad French pictures. Robert, the painter, at- 
tends us, to show what is intended to be done. 
The length is prodigious, but the colour gray, 
and unfavourable for pictures, Robert wishes 
the Directory to make skylights, but they have 
no money. It will be very fine when the statues 
come into it ; but there is hardly any light, and 
nowhere a good one, for the windows are all near 
the ground, and much too low for the purpose of 
lighting up paintings. Only think ! when the 
academicians opened out the plunder of Lom- 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 151 

barely, they found nothing but copies ; so wise 
are their Mummii, and so sharp the Italians. * 

Buonaparte gives but a lame account of him-* 
self and his troops in his last letter, talking of 
bad weather and terreur panique. What must 
the truth be when they publish so much ? 

At last they have given a palliated account of 
the misfortunes of the flotilla of Dunkirk, which 
has been knocked to pieces by the sea. There 
are great disturbances there ; officers hanged up 
by the sailors, others sent prisoners to Lille. 

Madame Campan keeps a boarding-school at 
St. Germain, and has fifty-six scholars, f Her 
husband lives with her, and teaches the children 

* If the Italians were too sharp for the French in this in- 
stance — an assertion much to be doubted — the latter amply 
revenged themselves at a later period, as was proved by the 
contents of the Louvre in 1814. 

f Madame Campan, femme de chambre to Marie Antoi- 
nette. Amongst her scholars were Napoleon's sister Ma- 
dame Murat, and Mademoiselle Beauharnais (Pauline.) 
She was aunt to Madame Ney. She was also appointed di- 
rectress of the Orphan Establishment of the Legion of Ho- 
nour, at Ecouen. Madame Campan was accused of acting 
towards some of her eleves in a manner not highly creditable 
to her character or their virtue. 



152 LETTERS FROM THE 

music, &c. Her father died quite insolvent. 
Her sister, Madame Naguet, threw herself out of 
a window, upon her husband's being arrested 
and herself denounced. I am assured that Ma- 
dame Campan was cruelly calumniated in the 
revolution. 

Isidore Lynch is here with Meade, doing no- 
thing, and living upon nothing, from his having 
remained en demi caracthre in the French ser- 
vice. Had he gone to England, he might have 
had a regiment ; and had he been zealous in the 
revolution, he would have had a command. 

I sat this morning listening to Madame de 
Talaru. She is just as you left her, drest in a 
heap as usual, and politiquant at a great rate. 
She lives in a very decent house, Rue de Bacq. 

You have no idea of the dearness of this place. 
I assure you I am obliged to calculate with my 
two pounds a day. They ask a louis d'or for a 
coach and coachman per day, and dinners are 
extremely dear. 

I am assured d'Alvimar was not put to death 
for any letter of mine. 

Poor Kellet, the monk, has been reduced to 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 153 

want a morsel of bread during the scarcity, and 
drank only water. 

Sir Sidney Smith is assisted in the convey- 
ance of his letters, &c., by two youngish women, 
who say it has been the business of their lives 
to assist prisoners. They take no money. 



Xov. 29, 1796. 

I fear the affair of Sir S. Smith will not suc- 
ceed. Since Lord Malmesbury gave in a note, 
declaring it to be the intention of our government 
to retaliate, the business has taken a mauvaise 
tournure, and the minister of marine (as I am told 
at his bureau) has been reprimanded about it, and 
will meddle no more ; so that all chance of my 
being allowed to see Sir Sidney is at an end. 

Lord M.'s instructions from Lord Grenville 
were so positive, that he could not put it off any 
longer. It is ill managed. We have an example 
in General O'Hara, that the only way to deal 
with men who have overleaped the bounds of 
law and right is moderation, and patient watching 
for the proper moment. Things were going on 



154 LETTERS FROM THE 

SO well ! Probably a little further delay would 
have completed the business. I see it en noir. 

This affair may also prove of evil consequence 
to the Choiseuls, taken at Calais, and already 
tried, but their judges declared incompetent by 
the Directory. The object of my mission will also 
be more difficult to accomplish, and I foresee a 
great deal of bad blood and haggling. I have 
the comfort to say it is no fault of mine, for I 
kept back the evil hour a fortnight. Tiie Direc- 
tory are very angry at Sir Sidney Smith's release 
being so much insisted upon, and the cartel 
stopped on that account. They seem to wish 
that we should think they consider him as an in- 
cendiary. 

Cussy, the emigre, was guillotined yesterday. 

I am just come from the petit Luxembourg, 
and from seeing Reubel receive petitions in his 
costume de directeur. Lynch was with me. * 
No one asked us any questions, as we handed in 
Mesdames d'Aremberg and Brancas, who wanted 
to see Barras. We went upstairs through a 

* The same who was mayor of Bordeaux in 1814, and was 
amongst the first functionaries that recognised the Bourbons. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 155 

great crowd, and through halls full of dragoons 
and grenadiers. The audience-room is a large 
salon, where Monsieur formerly received his com- 
pany. A bar across the middle divides the simply 
curious from those who have petitions to present, 
who are admitted within the bars by two senti- 
nels. Those who were merely spectators, like 
myself, remained without the rails. 

The room was filled with tagrag and bobtail ; 
a crowd of women presenting memorials, lame 
soldiers, &c., whilst aides-de-camp, secretaries, 
and well-dressed fellows, stood about the fireplace. 

The directeur had a blackguard clerk, in a 
shabby greatcoat, (forming a contrast with his 
gewgaws,) sitting near him at a table. Reubel 
attended by rotation for an hour. He was very 
elegantly clad, his hair well dressed, his waist- 
coat and pantaloons of white satin, with a blue 
belt and blue ribbons in his shoes, and a Roman 
sword hanging to a gold chain. Over all this a 
scarlet surtout or tabbard, lined with wliite, 
faced and caped with white, and embroidered with 
gold. The cape wide and lying on the shoul- 
ders — the sleeves at the wrist turned back, and 



156 LETTERS FROM THE 

a vandyck ruff. It is by no means a dignified 
habiliment ; it wants amplitude and simplicity 
for a toga, and tightness as well as simplicity for 
a paludamentum. His hat with feathers la}- on 
the table, near which he stood all the time. 

The petitioners gave their memorial to the 
director ; he stood between two soldiers with 
bayonets, who could read the papers over his 
shoulder. He perused them, and gave some 
answer or other. Behind him were huissiers 
dressed in short black cloaks, with red caps and 
feathers, very like Crispin's habit in the play, 
and quite as ludicrous. Some of the ministers 
stood round the fire. 

This puppet-show work cannot expedite busi- 
ness, but it amuses the people, and those who 
were accustomed to solicit and plead. The po- 
pulace, easily fascinated by any humbug, went 
away satisfied that they had seen their chief take 
their memorials with his own hands, and gratis, 
although probably he never tiiought any more of 
half of them. At one the great man bowed, and 
went into the inner room. 

I afterwards wrote to Truguetfor leave to visit 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, SiC. 157 

the depot, but with little hope of obtaining it, as 
Cottrau thinks the Directory are in a bad hu- 
mour. Continual squibs and songs against the 
government are stuck up in the streets, but no 
ballad-singers are seen about. 

Murders are numerous. The police knows 
who the assassins are, but is not strong enough 
to put a stop to them. The depravity of all 
ranks (if one can talk of ranks) is past belief. 
Every one plunges into the mud-pool of vice, as 
soon as he or she is strong enough to paddle in 
it without fear of parental or political control. 
Nothing can be more disastrous than the situa- 
tion of a virtuous parent, who has a son or daugh- 
ter of an age to marry, or to choose a profession. 

It appears to me that enormous fortunes have 
been made in these troublesome times ; but this 
has not been the lot of a very great number of 
persons ; for all pensions, rentes, interests, &c., 
being totally unproductive, farmers and peasants 
are refractory, and hard to manage. Scarce any- 
body seems rich, or even at ease, in his circum- 
stances. 

Lord Malmesbury, who lodges at I'Hotel de la 



158 LETTERS FROM THE 

Grange Bateliere, is surrounded by spies, who 
are at all hours parading before the gate of his 
large court, which, as well as the apartments, 
faces the short street of that name leading to the 
Boulevards, and through the windows on both 
sides one may from the street see every person 
that moves in them. He only goes out in the 
morning to take a walk, in the evening to some 
theatre, and frequently sups with Mrs. Elliot, 
with whom I think I told you Dr. Gem was 
imprisoned four months. 

The Doctor is eighty-two, and very stout. 
He was a violent democrat, but I fancy his pri- 
son, and the strange work he has been witness to, 
have cooled his ardour for the extremes of liberty. 
He is great uncle to Mr. Huskisson, and a very 
good physician. His nephew was bred by him a 
surgeon, and was then as revolutionary as him- 
self. He was made secretary of the club des 
Feuillans,* and when Lord Gowerf came to be 

* The club of Feuillans, established by Mirabeau, in the 
building of the old convent of that name, which then occu- 
pied a portion of the Rue Castiglione. 

f George Granville, third Earl Gower, ambassador to the 
court of France. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 159 

in want of a secretary, this young man was re- 
commended to him, as being the son of a Tren- 
tham tenant. This brought him to England, 
and his cleverness and knowledge of French re- 
commended him to Dundas, who probably is ig- 
norant of that language. 

The women here in the morning all wear dark- 
purple or gray stockings, with orange clocks ; 
large coloured shawls over their shoulders, wigs 
and loose caps, with immense flapping wings to 
them ; — such figures ! You would be amused to 
see them tripping along the dirty streets, pulling 
their petticoats round them, and showing their 
legs up to the knees. The men all look like cut- 
throats, with their long hair falling over their 
faces, their coloured neck-handkerchiefs, strange 
cut coats, pantaloons, immense sticks, and fierce 
cocked hats. 

I supped last night with Madame de Maulde, 
in compan}'^ with the Commandeur de Dolomi^re, 
who has adhered to the new order of things. 



160 LETTERS FROM THE 

Nov. 30, 1796. 

I have received letters from Sir S. Smith 
through the minister of marine. 

I begin to find myself assailed by very suspi- 
cious persons offering their services to the Bri- 
tish government, but am on my guard. 



Dec. 3, 1796. 
It has snowed for a day or two, and now 
freezes, and is delightful on the Boulevards. I 
went last night with Lord Malmesbury to see the 
famous satire upon the convention, called Vlnte- 
rieur d'un comite revolutionnaire, at the Theatre 
de la Cite.* It is a very curious and extraordi- 

* The following are the titles of some of the plays and 
comic operas most in vogue at this period, or rather a 
short time before. — " Le Vous et le Toi," comic opera — " A 
has la Calotte" comedy. — " Les accords de PhilUpot et Pa- 
mela" opera civico-matrimonico. (This was a satire on the 
Duke of Orleans and Madame de Genlis.) — " A qui sera 
pendu le Premier," proverbe tragico-risible. " Le mille et 
unieme tour de Marie Antoinette" " Les Prctres et Les Pais," 
vaudeville. L'interieur dun Menage Rcpublicaiii." " Le 
Tumbeaii des Lnposteurs," sansculottade dramatique. " Les 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 161 

iiary piece, which one can scarcely suppose would 
be tolerated. It has been stopped twice or thrice. 
Robespierre, Danton and others, are taken off to 
the life, in action, voice, words, and sentiments. 
The plot is nothing-, but there are some witty 
hits; indeed, it turns the whole revolution into 
ridicule, completely d, la Francaise. 

I yesterday visited the Blue Nuns. It seemed so 
odd to ^0 in at once. St. Ursula did not know me. 
Mrs. Green looks old. They appeared comfort- 
able, and I advised them to remain quietly where 
they are, and not to think of going to England, 
as some advise them. Their convent has been 
in ruins, but their property is restored to them, 
and they will do very well if another storm does 
not come. 

I walked to Chaillot, looking at the views. The 

vrais sans culottes" — " Le Jugement dernier des Hois — La 
Guillotine d Amour," &c. &c. The wit of the last piece de- 
pended upon a lover, who, on attempting to climb into the 
apartment of his mistress, was caught by the window falling 
upon his neck, and holding him prisoner until the police 
came round and took him up as a thief. Windows made 
as in England are still called a, la guillotine. 

VOL. II. M 



16-2 LETTERS FROM THE 

Bonshommes church is pulled down, as well 
as the statues at the Barrieres. 

Robert Dillon has married a rich widow, and 
from havino- lost his hand was never molested. 
Rochegude, absorbed in bibliomania, lives on his 
pay as deputy. 

After great delays and difficulties I have ob- 
tained passports for Major Gall and his sister 
and daughters, and he sets out to-morrow, taking 
this packet. I assure you, notwithstanding all 
my trouble and anxiety about it, I have had a 
treat in renderino; them so essential a service. 
Had he been the most disagreeable of men, I 
still should have rejoiced to serve the father of a 
family, and restore him to his children. 

Heavens ! what a luxury it must be to be rich 
and powerful, since the trifling mission I am 
sent upon has already furnished me with many 
most delicious moments, by affording me an op- 
portunity of serving and obliging. I am not 
one of those who think there is no gratitude in 
man ; on the contrary, I am persuaded, from my 
own experience, that there is a great deal of it in 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 163 

tlie world. Tlie almost sole pleasure of my pre- 
sent situation is the power of rendering de petits 
services, and sometimes very essential ones, to 
the persons who ask for them. 

I wish I had time to take a trip to St. Ger- 
main, to see poor Basile, who writes me word — 
" When you saw me last I was working for 
pleasure in my garden, and now it is for a live- 
lihood ; it is my only support." The tears fell 
down my cheeks as I read his letter, so full of 
onction and of cordial affection. 

To return to Major Gall, whom I have left in 
a Shandying style ; I think our friends, al solito, 
have taken him e?i grippe, because he is now 
poor. His fortune was placed in France, and 
then came the deluge, which swept all fortunes 
from the face of the earth. He is cheerful, grate- 
ful, sensible, and well informed — que voulez voiis 
de plus? 

I do not suppose any of my letters can mis- 
carry ; but as I write a regular account of every- 
thing, (faute d' amusement), pray acknowledge 
their receipt. 

I have a good friend in Lord Spencer. We 

M 2 



164 LETTERS FROM THE 

are in constant correspondence, and I have sent 
him some books. 

News is come of the surrender of Mantua.* 
The other day, when the Directory sent an ac- 
count of Buonaparte's victory to the five hundred, 
it was received with great coldness, and they 
passed to the order of the da3^ 

1 have seen Mentelh*, the geographer, member 
of the Institute, who is lodged in the Louvre. 
He has a globe map, so large tiiat you can creep 
in, to behold the heavenly movements. 

I am to enter upon the business of my mis- 
sion on the 10th, having received an official 
note from my three co-operators ; and high 
time it is for the poor prisoners ; for frost and 
snow are set in with great severity, and numbers 

* The fall of this place leads me to think of the battle of 
Marengo, which preceded it, and thence of an anecdote rela- 
tive to the death of Dessaix. All the world has been given 
to understand that this brave soldier died with these remark- 
able words upon his lips : " Allez dire au premier Consul, que 
je meurs avec le regret de nepas avoir assez fait pour lapatrie." 
Now, it is affirmed by an eye-witness, that all Dessaix really 

did say, on receiving his mortal wound, was " Je suisf- ." 

Cambron, at Waterloo, is reported to have exclaimed, " La 
garde meurti mais ne se rend pas:'' an absurdity, when at 
that moment the euard was in full flight. 



COURTS OF PARIS, iNAPLES, &C. 165 

of them are in want of clothes and fuel. 1 hope 
soon to be able to assist them. It is well I had 
Sir S. Smith's business to occupy me, or I should 
have seche sur pied for want of employment. 

I hear frequently from Le Moine, in better 
English than he used to write. By his account 
he is very decently provided for, from his little 
estate. What a new race is now in possession 
of the surface of France ! — But I think that in a 
generation or two, a qiielque choseprh, the peo- 
ple will be just like their predecessors. It will 
require great efforts tore-establish an appearance 
even of morality, decency, and probity, which 
was nearly the sum-total of what existed before. 
At the present crisis, immorality is at its height. 
Education and laws well enforced may bring 
things back to order ; but I look upon the 
younger part of the generation — I mean such as 
were about seventeen at the beginning of the 
revolution — as irretrievable. Very little can be 
expected even from those who are now of that 
age. Future good citizens and men of honour 
can only be hoped for, from the number of those 
who are now ten years old. 

I think there is such a lassitude in the whole 



166 LETTERS FROM THE 

nation, such a horror of being forced to fresh 
exertions of any kind, that those who at present 
rule will find it an easy matter to prevent any 
serious revolution or return of monarchy.* It 
is the nature of the French to make vigorous 
efforts while full of enthusiasm ; to push every- 
thing to extremes, and then to be quite tired of 
the struggle, and suffer their neck to be bowed 
again to some yoke or other ; provided, as for- 
merly, they may amuse themselves with roaring 
in your ears the splendour of the court, and the 
glory of the monarch ; or, in the present system, 
the liberty, indivisibility, equality, and unity of 
the republic. 

On most of the walls tliey have scratched out 
the finale, on la wort, and on the Palais Bour- 
bon, where the five hundred are to meet, there 
is put instead of it Humanite et Justice. 

The imbecility of all the princes is a great bar 
to a return to royalty, and I really think the pre- 
sent system will take root, if no unexpected con- 
vulsion happens. The rulers are much hated, 
and treated with a disrespect of language never 

* The revolution of the 9th Briimaire, wliicli placed Na- 
poleon on the throne, proves the fallacy of this prediction. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAI'LES; &C. 167 

used but in the latter days of Louis XV. They 
seem to be afraid of venturing out. Ati reste^ 
there is employment enough for them at home ; 
for the finances are in a very exhausted state. 

Carnot has gained ground wonderfully, by all 
accounts, and promises to increase in power and 
reputation of genius. 

The republic requires to fall into the hands of 
some able charioteer. At present money is so 
much the deity of every man's worship, and 
those who acquire it lavish it so profusely in the 
gratification of every passion, that one can form 
no guess when any great and good man is to 
make his appearance. But if the present powers 
can but keep the country quiet, the vast bulk 
alone of the empire will settle itself into consis- 
tency and order by its own weight. Thirty-six 
millions of men will not long continue in an 
uncomfortable situation, where the force is in 
their own hands ; and by degrees, that regula- 
rity and order necessary for the existence even of 
a gang of robbers must overpower anarchy and 
vice, or perish. 

You will laugh, perhaps, at all this political 



168 LETTERS FROM THE 

tirade ; — but 1 am quietly seated by my fireside, 
waiting for a person to go and see Mr. Boyd's 
house and furniture, from which I have got the 
seals removed ; and I put down my ideas as they 
arise, by way of conversation with you. 

You must expect, in the course of correspond- 
ence, many variations in my opinion, because 
every day presents objects in a different light, 
and I describe them as 1 see them at the mo- 
ment. Hereafter, perhaps, a comparative view 
may lead to the truth. 

The way poor fat Laborde lost his life was 
this : in Robespierre's time scarcely anything 
was more criminal than being out late at night, 
and driving in a cabriolet. His son, Auguste, 
supped with some gay ladies, and stayed very 
late ; so about two in the morning, he drives 
away in a gig — is stopped by the first patrol, 
and asked who he is — " Laborde." — " Quoi, fils 
du riche ?" — " Non, du fermier general." — " Ou 
est-il, le pere?" — " A tel endroit."— " Quoi ! il 
n'est-pas mort, avecles autres fermiers generaux? 
on nous avoit done trompes." And next morn- 
ing the hell-hounds were des])atched, and the 



COUKl'S OF PARIS, NAPLKS, &:C. 1G9 

father taken to prison, all by his son's dissipation 
and folly. 

Harry's protege, M'Grogan, has been to see 
me, full of gratitude for his kindness, which he 
has expressed warmly to his friend Barras. He 
told me he had been to the reception of an am- 
bassador, and heard Barras speak so elegantly ! 
such fine French delivery ! I could not help 
smiling. What a critical ear Mr. M'Grogan 
must have ! 

Lord Malmesbury has a good deal of diploma- 
tic morgue, yet seems indolently inclined. He, 
however, is willing to make the most of anything 
I can do, tell, or suggest. 



Dec. 12, 1796. 

Madame des Entelles tells me her father 
wishes me to sanction his translation of Milton. 
There have been ten already both in verse and 
prose, and none now would sell : — but it is his 
hobby-horse, poor man ! 

I have been to I'Hotel de Nesle, where all the 
pictures, vases, &c., taken out of the emigrants' 



170 LETTERS FROM THE 

houses, are deposited. The Directory liave car- 
ried off all the best, to furnish their apartments, 
public and private, as well as those of other 
officers. Most of those remaining are marked 
M. for the Musee, D. for the Directoire, and G. 
or N., the latter being for Madame de Nort, the 
divorced wife of the African Vaillant, who has 
sold his birds to the nation, and is repaid in 
pictures. 

At the Petits Augustins they have collected 
all the tombs, statues, busts, epitaphs, &;c., from 
the demolished churches ; they are all piled up 
in the court, or ranged in borders like the par- 
terres of a garden. The colossal figures, from the 
top of the St. Sulpice, are placed close to one's 
eye, and Cardinal Richelieu's famous monument 
from the Sorbonne is exposed to all sorts of in- 
jury in the court. 

When the Sans Culottes took up all the royal 
bodies to throw them into a hole, they found 
that of Henri Quatre quite fresh and recognisa- 
ble*' — the wound in his side bloody ; and the 

* A cast was made from it, with the beard and moustache 
still complete. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 171 

wretches amused themselves with pulling his 
beard and whiskers ! 



Dec. 13, 1796. 

Basile was with me this morning, white haired 
with poverty, chagrin, and imprisonment. The 
Vicaire de Menil, being turned out in the gene- 
ral dissolution of priesthood, married a nun, whom 
he divorced and took again. He now is regis- 
seur to M. Lenchere, a millionaire de nouvelle 
date^ who has bought Maisons. i\umont, the 
Vicaire de Maison, has behaved well through all 
vicissitudes, and earns his livelihood at the 
post-office. 

Taxes and cesses force every one to sell their 
furniture, and tlie Palais de I'Egalite is full of 
auctions every night, where things sell very low. 



Dec. 14, 1796. 
I am now in a new lodging in the rueHonort* 

* The word Saint was abolished. 



172 LETTERS FROM THE 

opposite V Assomption. There is nothing between 
me and the garden of the Tuileries but a wall, 
so that I have the sun on my windows from the 
time of its rising at this season of the year, and 
am very comfortable ; but the frost is intense. 

I have had the first conference, and dined to- 
day with Cottrau, the chef de bureau, and his 
wife, a very pretty woman, at Sir George Chad's, 
a Norfolk man, lately dubbed. He came strongly 
recommended to Cottrau, who has got him pass- 
ports to go through France and Italy, to the baths 
of Pisa. He seems a good sort of man, and in- 
vited me to a sumptuous repas, having met me at 
the Bureau. 



Dec. 16, 1796. 
I am frozen by the fireside. Poor Major Gall 
has been pursued by misfortunes ; for no sooner 
had he sailed out of Calais than he was over- 
taken by a French privateer. The vessel was 
seized and carried into Dunkirk, under pretence 
of specie being smuggled out of the country, &c. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 173 

However, in his letter lie says he was on the point 
of sailing, and that it would not be sent off until 
he was clear of the coast. 



Dec. 17, 1796. 

Yesterday was a charming day, and I took a 
walk to Auteuil, where I found everything as 
comfortable as it used to be. Madame de Bouf- 
flers is grown quite thin. Emanuel is no longer 
a beauty, but grown into an ugly red-haired boy. 

I then went to see Mr. Boyd's house at 
Boulogne, which is inhabited by somebody who 
bought it of La Nation. 

Ma ■petite sante devient grande, for I grow fat. 
Everybody cries out at my looks. I do not 
wonder, for every one here seems twenty years 
older than when I went away, with white hair, 
wizened faces, &c. 

The women here dress very well in the even- 
ing ; I mean those who do not put on (or rather 
put off) fancy dresses, which are un peu trop fort. 
The horrid length of naked arms above the 
elbow starves one to look at. Their waists are 



174 LETTERS FROM THE 

not too short, like our fashionables in England. 
Wine of the first quality is now almost as cheap 
as the commonest sorts, by reason of the stagna- 
tion of commerce. 

I have left my name at the Marquis del Cam- 
po's, (the Spanish minister,) with a polite note, 
but have not heard of him since. He is so great 
a courtier, that here he signs Campo, tout court. 
If he goes anywhere else, where democracy is 
still more exalted, he will, of course, sink lower, 
and call himself — Po I 

The saints are gradually regaining possession 
of their posts, in the titles of streets. Honest 
men, and men of parts and education, are b}^ 
degrees rising to their natural level, and regain- 
ing their proper ascendency over the unlettered, 
strong, ferocious animals. Mankind, b}^ the su- 
periority of mind and pliability of its organs, has 
subdued every other animal ; and by the same 
irresistible force, wisdom, virtue, learning, and 
skill, must overcome the savage part of mankind 
in a short time. The latter have no chance of 
maintaining the superiority which bodily strength 
and numbers give them, but by a total destruc- 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 175 

tion and annihilation of arts, sciences, books, tra- 
dition, and all that ever knew anything. 

Sir Sidney Smith was yesterday interrogated 
by a judge. 



Dec. 20, 1796. 

Lord Malmesbury, who will carry this letter, 
received orders this morning to quit Paris in 
forty-eight hours, as the terms he has offered 
were contrary to the laws, constitution, and trea- 
ties of the republic. He will set out to-morrow. 
As yet, I have not heard that I am to follow him, 
although several people have taken pains to re- 
present me to the Directory as participating in 
his mission, and being an accredited spy upon 
public opinion. 

I am pestered with men and women that offer 
their services for England, for Sir Sidney, or for 
the devil knows who ; but I have a visage de bois 
for them all. I shut myself up still more in my 
bandbox, and attend to business as far as I am 
able. 

T am at I'Hotel des Carmes, in a very large 



176 LETTERS FROM THE 

salon, with half a dozen screens, and a comfort- 
able bedchamber. My secretary is also lodged 
magnifiquement. But we were nearly frozen to 
death before the thaw. I have fixed my table and 
lodging expenses and wages as cheap as I could, 
and when all is paid, have not more left than ten 
or twelve francs for plays or coach-hire. 

I have to-day sent in a petition for the Blue 
Nuns, to President Barras. I had asked to see 
him, but the clouds of the moment render it im- 
possible. 



Dec. 25, 1796. 

A merry Christmas to you all, and a good 
appetite for your goose pies and mince pies. I 
am neither merry nor sad, but should be happier 
in any clime or situation, if I had you all round 
me. 

You see by this I have survived our minister 
four days at least, and I conclude I shall remain 
quiet here. I say here, because it appears as if I 
should not be suffered to move from hence for 
some time. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 177 

I spare no pains, and, by means of correspon- 
dents, succeed much in gaining proper accounts 
of prisons and prisoners. I liope to be of almost 
(not quite) as much use as if I were on the spot. 
I have already procured some lists, and sent 
relief to several places. 

One of my correspondents is Mr. Mitford, a 
brother of Lady Charles Annesley, who resides 
at Amiens. Perregaux, the banker, is extremely 
friendly and useful to me in this respect, and is 
always ready with open purse-strings. His daugh- 
ter is a very smart, pretty girl.* 

Nothing can exceed Madame de Laborde's 
attention to me. She is settled in her fine house, 
Rue d'Artois (now Cersette). I went with her 
and her daughter to the Lycee Republicaine, to 
hear La Harpe read an " Analyse de Zaire." 
Afterwards I'Abbe Morellet gave us an account of 
his own examination by the Comite Revolu- 
tionnaire. 

Madame de Poix had a ball the other night, 
but I was lazy, and did not go. How comically I 

* She afterwards became Duchess de Kaguse (Marmont). 
VOL. II. N 



178 LETTERS FROM THE 

should have been accoutred, in worsted stockings 
and half boots, with a red handkerchief round 
my neck! Such is the ball costume at present. 



Jan. % 1797. 
Since my last, I have little to say, beyond 

wishing you all a liappy new year. I hardly go 
anywhere, and as to plays and balls, I have not 
been to a public place for a month. I expected a 
few days ago that my turn was come, and that I 
was to be ordered to follow Lord Malmesbury ; 
but things appear to have taken another twist, 
and I fancy I am to stay. I had a hint given me 
the other day, that I should have something soon 
to do, more than administration had first in- 
tended. If so, I should rejoice at the oppor- 
tunity given me of showing that I am capable of 
managing more important concerns than those I 
am charged with. 

I received a letter from La Croix, the ministre 
des affaires interieures, who, by order of the 
Directory^ wishes to see my commission. I called 
on him with it, at his sumptuous hotel de Gallifet. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 170 

He was civil enough in his wa}^ but appeared 
ignorant of the nature of our commission. (He 
kept mine.) He was in a long close coat, and 
wore his hair very long and powdered, without a 
queue. He is a tall vulgar man. 

I also waited upon Merlin de Douay, ministre 
de la justice, about Sir Sidney, whom I asked to 
see, but in vain. This one was nicely powdered 
and pig-tailed, with spectacles. 

The Directory have found the means to be re- 
chosen contrary to law, and to fill up vacancies 
themselves in the college. 

D'Alvarade pretends to me that he has taken 
great pains to dissuade Reubel from ordering me 
out of France. I was last night at the American 
consul's, Mr. Mountflorence. His name is Cole ; 
but because a Cole in Ireland is Viscount Mount- 
florence, this man calls himself so. I met Mr. 
and Mrs. Pinkney there. 



Jan. 9, 1797. 
You do not write often enough. Consider how 
precious a letter is to me, a poor solitary hermit 

n2 



180 LETTERS FROM THE 

de la Rue Honore. I understand La Croix 
wished to send me away, and said my powers 
were insufficient ; but the commissioners stepped 
forward, and the matter was cleared up. My 
commission is to be sent back, with an apology, 
and a request to look upon the tiling as non 
avenue. 

My conduct, in this instance, as in everything 
else since I came here, is so correct, that the 
more it is pried into, the better 1 shall be satis- 
fied. I experience every civility from the Ma- 
rine, and am glad to be on a fair and good footing 
with the persons I have to meet upon business. 

I had not been at a public place since Lord 
Malmesbury went away ; not from my mourning 
for that event, but from my want of somebody to 
force me out. But the other day I emei-ged, 
and honoured with my presence a morning con- 
cert at Monsieur Senovert's, who was an officer, 
and son to a president de Toulouse, but is now a 
snuff- merchant. He went over to England with 
Monueron, last year, to offer a negotiation, but 
got no farther than Canterbury. He occupies 
Madame de Polignac's hotel, Rue St. Dominique. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 181 

The company assembled at two. The men 
were clean,* many in English dresses, but there 
were also a good many extravagants, or iricroy- 
ables, e?i oreilles de ciden ; that is, with their hair 
plaited and done up very tight behind, like an 
old-fashioned chignon, and in front two curls or 
tresses a foot long, just parted in the middle of 
the forehead, and hanging down the cheeks upon 
the waistcoat. Two of them I remarked as being 
particularly ridiculous ; one side only was in 
curls hanging down, the other drawn back with 
the hair behind. 

The women were all in wigs, generally as dif- 
ferent as possible from the true colour of their 
hair; their faces almost totally obscured. Their 
caps and hats had much gold and velvet, and 
very small feathers ; their waists immoderately 
short, their faces daubed, their necks covered, 

* This reminds me of a somewhat similar observation 

made by Lord , who, being at Brussels immediately after 

the arrival of King Leopold in 1831, and having returned to it 
again three years after, exclaimed, " Things are mightily im- 
proved since my last visit ; for then, when I went to dine 
out, I was obliged to walk through a puddle, to take the 
polish offmy boots, as I did not like to look particular. Now 
they actually all clean their boots and shoes with French var- 
nish."' 



182 LETTERS FROM THE 

their gowns muslin, with a great profusion of gold 
spangles and gold fringe. 

We had some excellent singing by Garat, who 
has a delightful voice and great taste ; and as he 
was there as one of the company, perfectly at his 
ease, he sang jovially, and without being asked. 
He has thirty thousand livres for twelve nights at 
the theatre, A Mademoiselle Molinos played 
on the harp, and Mademoiselle du Fresnoy on the 
piano, in an astonishing manner. 

At half-past four we sat down to a grand de- 
jeuner ; then concertoed till ten ; then su])ped ; 
then danced — (pas moi) — it would not have 
suited my diplomatic dignity, and still less my 
gray hairs ; for I am grown very gray, from living 
with Lord Malmesbury. 

The late Bishop of Angers, Citoyen Couet de 
Lory, lives a few doors off from me, avec sa petite 
gouveriiante, et son bon magot deciis. Citoyen 
Tersan sends his compliments to you. Yester- 
day I dined at Perregaux's with Cubieres, (late 
ecuyer cavalcadour du roi,) whom you remember 
with a pretty house and garden at Versailles. 
He is a wit, and very merry. He is engaged in 
the Jo urnitures defoin pour la repuhlique. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 183 

Theothernight, Madame de F«/e?ice*gaveaball, 
chez ma tante, to a vast number of cidevants,1[ who 
ate and drank, laughed and danced, as if they 
had not a friend absent, or one murdered, — when, 
behold ! in comes Madame Tallien, and all the 
women went away. Can you imagine such folly, 
in their circumstances and misfortunes ? I will 
venture to say, there was scarcely one but had 
directly or indirectly asked, or will soon ask, a 
favour of that woman, whose greatest crimes, 
perhaps, are her beauty and her riches. 

Monsieur d'Hautefort maintains a gi^and etat, 
and gives the best concerts and diners fins in 
Paris, without any other means but liis old ones. 
Madame de Maulde and her daughters visited 
and dined there, as they are ever in the same 
court ; but they found out that Mademoiselle 
Henriette, whom he introduced to them as his 
pupilhy was quelque chose de plus ; so they go 
there no more. 

All the dead trees in the Tuileries are taken 
away, and young ones planted in their place, 

* Daughter of Madame de Genlis. 

+ Ma tante was the nickname for Madame de Montesson. 
The Cidevants were the ex-nobiHty. 



184 LETTERS FROM THE 

Monsieur de Maulde expects to be a deput}^, 
and would otherwise be employed in the diplo- 
matic line. 

Dr. Gem tells me, he has such an idea of my 
philosophical love of truth and dignity, that he 
was sure I would not have accepted of an em- 
bassy. 

Count Benincasa has enclosed to me a heap of 
improper letters, which I opened, and found one 
full of equivocal, cipherous phrases, coiisus dejil 
hlanc, and another directed au Citoyen Grangi- 
bus ; so I made a bonfire of them. Do not say 
I was cross ; for, voyez-vous, supposing my let- 
ters come unopened, and I were to send them, 
the person is taken up, and the papers are found 
in his bureau. " How did you come by them?" 
— " I received them from le comniissionnaire An- 
glais,"— who sleeps the next night at Chantilly ! 

To return to Benincasa, he has vexed many 
people by the ridiculous observations in his 
book. * 

I cannot conceive whom you mean by Mrs. 

'^ Count Baitholonieo Benincasa, author of a work called 
" Les Morlaques," and of other publications of a satirical 
kind. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, 8cc. 185 

Talbot and her niece Justinia, and how they 
want me to serve them. I have no list with me 
but that of figures, which cannot be employed, as 
being evidently a cipher ; therefore pray do not 
write amjjhibologiquement, except when you are 
very sure I must recollect. You know I am not 
quick at deciphering, and never could guess 
anything. Indeed I hate the trouble of it, 
which some people like. Do you not remember 
my making a charade in going to Paris, and 
wlien I returned to Menil, having forgotten to 
write down the solution, I could not make out 
what it was ? 

I dined yesterday at Cannel d'Anville's, with 
Hovel, the painter, of Sicily. There was a large 
company of men ; and a very pretty housekeeper 
directed the service, helped the guests, and then 
sat on a chair behind, without attending to the 
free conversation that passed at table. The Can- 
nels are great merchants, and have now the 
looking-glass manufactory ; but I think the bad 
sales, destruction of all credit, and want of ex- 
portation, must ruin any adventurer in that 
trade. 



186 LETTERS FROM THE 

The Comtesse Amelie de Bouffler's husband 
has been long dead, and there is a suspicion 
that she is married again to M. Chevalier, her 
son's tutor. He saved all their lives. I do not 
believe the report of her having married him : 
''^ pour autrement — peut-6tre.'^ * 

I did not find old Madame de Boufflers cross ; 
she used to be so formerly ; also in other respects, 
which shall be nameless, she is much improved : 
cetait de Vancien regime. Madame Lorenzi is at 
Auteuil. I see Madame de Laborde often. Na- 
talie has lost her son. 

I meet the American consul sometimes at 
dinner ; but his nation is now on so ticklish a 
footing with ours, that he seems frightened to 
death if I even pass near him. 

I am sure Dundas and Huskisson did not for- 
get me when they talked me over with the king. 
I have every reason to flatter myself I am ap- 
proved of on both sides. Indeed, I have kept 
clear of all dirty connexions, and hope to steer 
my ves-el through all plots and nonsense, and 

* A lady interrogating a gentleman who was paying atten- 
tion to her daughter, asked him, '' Est-ce jiour le 7nariuge, ou 
autremenlf " Pour auf.rement," s,-Md\\ii. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 187 

complete my mission frankly and loyally, to their 
heart's desire. I trust, therefore, the old gentle- 
man is not likely to be laid on the shelf. But I 
should not talk so much of him, for I assure you 
I am in such health and looks, and such a smart 
beau hlond'm, that I am afraid to ^o in a carriage 
in the dark — presque seul. * 



Jan. 18, 1797. 

I send you two prints of the present dresses of 
Paris, done by Vernet's son, and not the least 
caricatured, however extraordinary they may 
appear to you. What a change even the two 
months I have been here have made in dress, 
manners, &c. ! The return of tranquillity, and 
diminution of terror in the minds of belles, beaux, 
and dastardly honnetes gens, who in fact deserve 
no name but that of egotists, have produced a 
wonderful improvement, and increase of luxur}^ 
The quantity of handsome carriages just come 
out ; the circumstance of servants again getting 

* M. de B. inquiring of the pretty M. de T. if she was 
going quite alone into the country, the lady answered, 
" Presque seule." 



188 LETTERS FROM THE 

up behind them, and being better drest ; abbes 
and others walking chapeau has ; the men more 
elegantly, and the women more richly habited ; 
strike my eyes as I move about in private and in 
public. I have this day, for the first time, seen 
a vinaigrette. * 

Yesterday Madame de Gontaut gave as fine a 
ball as ever was given in days of yore: three 
hundred of the company had lost near relations 
by the guillotine I Some of the men there danced 
with their hats on, and with red heels. Two of 
the ministers (I do not mean foreign ones) were 
present. 

I saw advertised in the Journal de Paris " Re- 
cueil de toutes les pieces enfaveur de Louis Seize, 
piar Gxiyard, auteur de sa Defense.'f 

* A species of sedan chair upon two wheels. These vehi- 
cles were introduced when all the horses in Paris were put in 
requisition for the army. 

t Another curious publication had preceded it. This was 
the dreadful catalogue of the victims of the guillotine. It 
was first published in numbers, and was entitled, " Liste ge- 
nkrale et tres exucte des noms, ages^ et qualiles, de tovs les con- 
spirateurs qui out etes condamnes a mort par le Tribunal lie- 
■volutionuuire., Ian 2 de la Rcpublique, tine et indivisible et iin- 
perissablc." The first eleven numbers, in my possession, contain 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 189 

1 dined yesterday at Neilson's, with La Harpe, 
Henri La Riviere, and M. Chevenix, son of an 
L'ish bishop, and we all adjourned to the Ly- 
cee, to hear La Harpe dissert on " Merope ;" but 
he had taken more of the Burgundian than the 

the names of two thousand seven hundred victims. It may 
not be irrelevant to mention, that this instrument of death 
was invented, before the revolution, by a Dr. Guillotin, with 
the philanthropic intention of shortening the sufferings of 
criminals. The projector went mad when he discovered the 
horrible purposes to which his invention was applied. It will 
scarcely be believed, that when this machine was erected en 
permanence upon the Place Carousel, the children used to 
climb upon the scafi'old, and amuse themselves by putting 
their heads through the hole still dripping with blood ; and if 
any one, more timid than the others, evinced repugnance at 
the sight, he was assailed and maltreated, as an aristocrat. 
The people were so accustomed to the guillotine, that 
the word seemed to be identified with the manners and 
thoughts of the day. The very ballad-singers used to chant 
its merits. The following is a sample of one of their songs : 

La guillotine est un joujou, 
Aujourdhui des plus a la mode ; 
J 'en veux en bois d'acajou. 
Que je mettrai sur ma commode. 
Je I'essayerai soir et matin, 
Afin que, netant point novice, 
Je sois pret des le lendemain, 
En cas que je sois de service. 



190 LETTERS FROM THE 

Castalian spring, and made very didl stuflPof his 
speech. 

Carmelite, houe de Paris, and purple, are now 
the fashionable colours for women. 

How dear Paris is grown ! Every article of 
dress is nearly double what it was ten j^ears ago. 
I am compelled to be very economical with my 
two pounds a day, and can hardly make it do. 

Except at balls, all descriptions of women cover 
their necks very much ; most of them cover their 
shoulders and half their bodies with large co- 
loured handkerchiefs, generally purple, with 
broad borders of rose colour or orange. Men 
wear coloured handkerchiefs as cravates. 

I find your friend Le Maitre was looked upon 
as a mauvaise tete, and was enveloped in a fool- 
ish correspondence, which was intercepted and 
caused his death. 

Many people think Monsieur de Rohan (Clia- 
bot that was) will marry little Madame Laborde. 
Others say, ilest trop frivole pour cela. 

Madame de Nort, who has a large collection 
of original pictures to sell, where I have been 
selecting some for Benfield,* is the wife of Vail- 

* Brother-in-law to Mr. Swinburne. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 191 

lant, the ornitho-catclier. She has retaken her 
maiden name, because (after being three years 
absent) he came back with a new wife and three 
children. She has a son ; so, by agreement 
between his father and her, she has got posses- 
sion of his cabinet of birds, which she parted 
with to the Nation, and in return they have 
given her what they think the sweeping of the 
emigrant plunder ; but there are many charming 
things amongst them. 

I do not think I should have any difficulty in 
obtaining from the Directory leave for poor Du- 
rand * to return to his plough, though not to his 
vicarage, if he wishes it. My situation puts me 
in the way of seeing many people, and of making 
pleasant acquaintance ; but le coin de monfeu me 
seduit, and I do not go much about. 

The Dutch ambassador gave a great ball the 
other night, (I forget on what occasion,) and the 
doors of his court were shut at nine, and only re- 
opened at eight the next morning — a ball of 
liberty ! Some gentlemen, whose wives were ill 

* Tutor to his children. 



192 LETTERS FROM THE 

from the heat, were obliged to use force to get 
the doors opened. 



yaw. 22, 1797. 

No letter from you in this last packet. I only 
wish the folks who intercept them would forward 
them after reading their contents. I enclose one 
from Abbe Durand's father to me, which will give 
the poor fellow pleasure. All the Durands in the 
world seem to enjoy good health ; they seem to be 
a numerous clan. A gentleman here, for whom I 
got a friend released, has presented me with a 
perpetual ticket for the opera, so you may ima- 
gine I never go ; but my Lord Findlater, * alias 
my secretary, does, and tells me all about it. 
There is a charming piece given now, called 
" Anacreon chez Polycrate." 

I met to-day atTersan'syour old acquaintance 
I'Abbe de Londres, as brisk as bottled ale, and ten 

* Alluding to the repeated answers given by Lady Findla- 
ter to George II., when at her presentation he asked her if 
she had been to the opera, museums, &c. — " No, Sir, but my 
Lord Findlater has." 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 193 

years younger than he was when we knew 
him. Tersan tells me that Le Vaillant's ci-de- 
vant wife has taken to herself another husband. 

The Directory went yesterday to Notre Dame 
in procession, to commemorate the king's execu- 
tion. They were in their own plain coaches, one 
servant out of livery behind, themselves engrand 
costume; a number of troops before, trumpeting, 
&c. There was no crowd, and the mob was quite 
quiet. I stood to see them at my ease on the 
Pont Neuf. In Notre Dame they sat under the 
centre tower, where the bells used to hang, and 
some people, who had got up there to see, pulled 
down through the poles a shower of dust and dirt 
upon Reubel's head. 

Natalie's son died in London, where he was 
with his father, and was, tliey think, doctored to 
death. She was in dreadful grief when the news 
was broken to her. 

I dined yesterday with Perregaux and la belle 
Hortense. 

I am much better since I got back to my old 
air of Faubourg St. Germain ; the excessive 
noise of the rue Honore gave me headaches. I 

VOL. II. o 



194 LETTERS FROM THE 

am now in the Maison d'Orleans, rue des Petits 
Augustins. 



Jan. 27, 1797. 

At lengtli I have received your packet, and 
make amende honorable to all the autoritts con- 
stitutionnels, whom I suspected of having so long 
intercepted our correspondence. The vohime of 
letters before me will exceed my time to-day, and 
even to-morrow, to answer fully, because I must 
indulge in the pleasure of reading them over and 
over, to savourer their contents. Some parts are 
quite unintelligible to me, as I have no cipher 
or key ; for example, I puzzle my brains in vain 
to comprehend who Justinia and her methodist 
aunt are. * I went to bed in despair, and lay 
awake I don't know how long, without succeeding 
in finding it out, and am no wiser this morning. 

I dined yesterday with Perregaux, whose 
cordial kindness, to me I am apt to acknow- 

* This was intended for Justin, the young Marquis de Ta- 
laru, and his uncle L'Eveque de Coutances, who wished to be 
allowed to re-enter France from emigration. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 195 

ledge in every letter, and met there Talleyrand, 
ex-bishop of Autun, lately returned from Ame- 
rica. We renewed acquaintance very well. 
He is a very pleasant man, though a diahle hoi- 
teux. He is moving heaven and earth to get 
employed by the Directory. We had also my old 
friend St. Foix, who is now a great crony of 
Talleyrand's, and Simon Dumesny, grandson of 
Helvetius. 

Monsieur Perignon has invited me to dinner for 
next Decade, and, adds this apostille : " Les repre- 
sentans Portalis, Cambaceres, et Isnard, qui doi- 
vent etre des notres, s'applaudissent beaucoup de 
vous connoitre ; je partage leur empressement, et 
j*ose esperer que vous ne vous refuserez pas a nos 
desirs communs." 

The newspapers dixere quid essent hi homines ; 
but I shall be glad to know them in spite of Mr. 
Burke's broad R. 

I meet with great civility from people I never 
knew before, and by remaining quiet, recueilli 
and steady, I shall not risk losing any ground, 
and I may gain. 

The other day, the municipality of Melun 

o 2 



196 LETTERS FROM THE 

wrote to the ministre de Tinterieur a petition, 
and signed it, '* Votre tres humble et tres obeis- 
sante servante, la inimicipalite de Melun." 

Monsieur d'Hautefort lives at an immense rate, 
giving monthly concerts, which cost him a hun- 
dred and fifty guineas in music. 

In Robespierre's time the direction of an Eng- 
lish letter was sufficient to condemn any one on 
whom it was found ; at present things are very 
different. 

I do not know whether Henry the Eighth was 
murdering and plundering while Sir Thomas More 
was composing his Utopia ; but your exclamations 
of happy times, justice and moderation, amuse 
me as much as Democritus would have been 
amused, if he could have peeped alternately over 
Sir Thomas's shoulder to read, and then out of 
the window at burnings and executions. 

The victory lately obtained in Italy by Buona- 
parte may help us to a peace, though I do not 
comprehend very clearly how it is to operate 
that way, unless he marches into the Tyrol ; for 
as to Italy, we have no longer any interest in it. 

I could not get the sequester taken off Mr. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 197 

Boyd's house ; all I obtained was leave to break 
the seals, and make a survey of the state of furni- 
ture, cellars, &c. His property is of a size not 
to be recovered quite so easily. Many are reco- 
vering theirs, among the rest the ci-devant Eveque 
d'Autun, who had formerly given up his right of 
primogeniture to his brother, and became an 
abbe, on account of his lameness. 

Mr. and Mrs. Pinckney, the American ambas- 
sador and his wife, have been directed to leave 
the territory of the republic, and are gone to 
Holland. 

I wonder if my turn will come next. I see no 
foreign ministers, and believe I did very well in 
following that plan. 



Jan. 29, 1797. 
I went last night to the bal ahonne at THotel 
de Richelieu ; it was very much crowded, but, as 
you may suppose, with few of my acquaintance 
except those I went with. Madame Campan*s 
sister, Madame Rousseau, was there with a stout 



198 Lf:TTERS FROM THE 

unmarried daughter, and a still stouter married 
one, dancing away all three. I saw many men 
and women kicking their heels about, whose age 
would have condemned them to the benches in 
former days. 

Madame Tallien was almost the only tolerable 
face, though haggard with hard duty and some 
thinking. She wore a black wig, en tete de mou- 
ton, sticking up behind, and interwoven with 
pearls and diamonds. Her dress had much gold 
and ponceau. She made a great display. Her 
shoulders are broad, and her figure robust. She 
dances well, has fine eyes, rather an Irish nose — 1 
mean turned up at the end only. I do not know 
whether you understand me, but Burke's is so. 
She is exposed to hear many disagreeable 
speeches and scenes, at which I do not wonder. 
She looks sometimes dejected. The women of 
character, though belonging to the republic, do 
not associate with her. She had only a compa- 
nion, or toadeater. 

General Hoche was one of the company, a 
tolerable looking young man, with nothing at all 
martial in his countenance ; grave and quiet, not 
^' en vainqueur d'lv'lande.'' 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, Scc. 199 

When you consider how completely this nation 
has been demoralised, and the kind of persons 
who are to compose the rising generation, without 
control, education, or example before them, 
you will not wonder at my being incredulous as 
to the prompt return of Astrea. 

I was going to apply for Madame Martinville's 
radiation the very day Lord Malmesbury was 
ordered away. Perhaps an opportunity may 
offer of serving her, but I must wait till it ap- 
pears. Madame d'Angevillers lives at Versailles, 
retired behind her hair and veil, as usual. 

I told you about the Dames Boujfflers. The old 
one is quite a skeleton ; the younger looks plump 
and well. It is supposed she is married to Cheva- 
lier, to whom they express much gratitude for 
saving their lives. Her son Emmanuel has got 
fifty thousand livres a year by Madame de Bi- 
ron's death. 



Jan. 30, 1797. 
I wish the elections of April may pass without 
a heavy storm ; but the clouds are gathering 



200 LETTERS FROM THE 

black. The meetings of the pubh'c assemblies 
are tempestuous. Murders have been lately 
perpetrated by one party or the other ; I trust it 
may blow over. 

The conversation of the day is of a journalist 
being taken to the Directory, and whipped in 
the president's apartments. What will be the 
issue I cannot tell, but all the papers are full of 
it. For my part, my wish is to inspire govern- 
ment with a proper idea of my character, to in- 
terfere with no party, to attend only to the subject 
of my mission, but, at the same time, to cultivate 
cultivandos. I hope this can lead to no harm. I 
have neither cipher nor means of transmitting 
any intelligence ; therefore, were I ever so much 
disposed to be active, I must remain quiet. 

Now comes another letter about Mrs. Talbot 
and her niece ! Who the deuce she is I know 
not, so shall pass her over as quickly as I can. 
Monsieur Dolomieu tells meMadame del'Albanie 
had a son by Alfieri, and it was in consequence 
of this that the grand duke sent her to Rome. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 201 

Feb. 1, 1797. 

They are crying about the streets the account 
the Directory has sent to the councils, of an 
abortive conspirac)^ of the royalists to proclaim 
Louis XVIII., carried on by a maitre de requetes, 
a poor foolish fellow, a Baron Poly, and an Abbe 
Brottier, nephew to the Jesuit editor of Tacitus. 
The scheme was weaker than water. 

I have read the passage you allude to in Taci- 
tus, and Tersan and I agree that it is iire 'par les 
cheveux et entortille, even too much for him. 
When one begins to be too old to guess logo- 
griphes, I find one dislikes obscenity and diffi" 
cultes vaincues. 

I dined yesterday en grande compagnie, at a 
dinner given to me by Perignon, avocat de la 
marine. His wife is handsome ; she was the only 
lady there ; an American consul and myself the 
only foreigners. We sat down thirty-two. The 
principal personages were Isnard, Muraire, Por- 
talis, Cambaceres, Jubries, Augustin Mone- 
ron, Vance, Janet, &c. Isnard was very noisy, 
and drank hard. He gave us an account of his 



202 LETTERS FROM THE 

hiding during Robespierre's reign. He was 
locked up four months in Dauphiny, at a friend's 
house, lay in bed all day, and was in the garden 
all night. He laughed much at Louis XV HI. 
offering to pardon the Regicides, which he said 
was an unnatural thing for him to do ; and he 
said, if ever the French people took it into their 
heads to recall Louis, he for one would slip out 
of some corner of the realm, as the king stepped 
into the other.* 

Cambaceres is a deep, black, silent lawyer, 
very like a king's judge ; Portalis a pleasant, 
unaffected jurisconsult. There was a fine set-out, 

* Isnard kept a perfumer's shop at Draguignan. He was 
named deputy to tlie National Convention in 1791, and was 
one of the most vehement of its members. The following 
may be taken as a specimen of his principles and eloquence. 
" Religion," said he in one of his speeches, " is an instru- 
ment with which one can do more mischiefthan with any other ; 
therefore you must treat its ministers with more severity than 
any other class of people. These priestly disturbers must 
be driven from France. They are infectious wretches, who 
must be sent to perish in the lazarets of Rome and Italy." 
He voted the death of the unfortunate Louis, and the " mis 
en accusatioti" of the princes. He published several volumes; 
amongst others, a " Dithyrambe on the Immortality of the 
Soul." 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES. &C. 203 

It being" the day when Brottier's conspiracy had 
been discovered, that subject afforded conversa- 
tion.* 

I have received an official letter from Mr. 
Dundas, signifying, that, by the king's ex- 
press command, he communicated to me his 
Majesty's thorough approbation of my conduct 
in the negotiation. The powers to whom I 
officially communicated the contents of Mr. Dun- 
das's letter were very well pleased, and the 
whole has made a pleasant impression : it is looked 
upon as a I'approchement des deux nations. I have 
but one Director violently against me, on ac- 
count of your friendship with queens, and Harry's 
having been a page — viz. Reubel, who says I am 
a Frenchman, because I speak French without 
an English accent, and pretends my son served 
in I'Armee de Conde. But 1 am told he is an 
honest man, although obstinate ; so that if ever 
he can be persuaded that he is mistaken on my 
score, he will be a stanch friend. One other, 

* Andrew Brottier, a priest, who was implicated, in 1797, 
in a conspiracy against the Directory. He was seized, and 
banished to Synnamari, where he died in 1798. 



204 LETTERS FROM THE 

Barras, is said to be quite indifferent. As he has 
been civil to me, he certainly cannot be inimical. 
I am unwilling to apply to him the Timeo Danaos 
et dona ferentes. The three others approve of 
my conduct, and give me their support. I am 
writing, at Coltrau's desire, an ostensible account 
of myself and family, for Reubel. 

I have called on Merlin, the ministre de la 
justice, concerning Sir Sidney. He had no 
precise answer to give, except that Sir S. was 
turned over again to the ministre de la marine. 
Sir Sidney carried on his correspondence with 
Lord Malmesbury, and with me, by means of 
two women whom he called Les Muses. They 
had access and acquaintance in the temple, and 
probably were employed by the Directory, as they 
went openly to Lord M., and came so to me, but 
I never would admit them up-stairs. They 
brought letters from him in walnut shells and 
such like, and I sent him money by them, which 
I dare say they diminished as it passed through 
their hands. I went one day, according to their 
direction, to see them, up four pair of stairs, in a 
house looking into the shambles and market of 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 205 

tlie Abbaie St. Germain. It was something like 
Bobadil's lodgings. There was an old hag rock- 
ing a child, and the two women undressed, un- 
painted, and filthy looking. One of them is the 
divorced wife of some avocat de Provence. 



Feh. 12, 1797. 
A most ridiculous thing happened to me last 
evening. I went about six o'clock, in a carriage, 
to call upon Mrs. Drumgold about some business. 
Upon knocking, a cookmaid through the key- 
hole asked what we wanted. The servant gave 
my name, saying I wished to see Madame Drum- 
gold. A window opened in the upper story, and 
ladies appeared, inquiring who I was. I answer- 
ed; then other windows opened, and there seemed 
a great commotion throughout the house. It 
seems, the servant said I was Monsieur le Com- 
missaire, and probably they thought I was the 
police officer come to take them up, for the maid 
came again to the keyhole, and said nobody 
lived in the house. Upon this I took my depar- 



206 LETTERS FROM THE 

ture, and wrote the nature of my business to 
Mrs. Drumgold, which was about Mr. Latin's 
house, &c., and received her excuses. Such are 
the remnants of the reign of terror. 

There is a " bal abonne," with Robert Dillon 
at the head, called " Lesrestesde la Guillotine.'" 
None are admitted but femmes presentees, and 
jils de pendus* 

Your expectations of the emancipation of 
Italy will soon be realised, for the first blow is 
given. The French have routed the papal troops 
at Faenza, and are marching along the coast to 
Ancona. The pope is probably gone to Porto 
Ferrajo. 

Harry has enjoined me so severely to attend 
the playhouses, that, in obedience to the governor, 
I have begun my " cours de theatre," by that 
of La Republique. It was " Robert chef de 
Brigands," a tragic comedy, (no comedy in it,) 
directed chiefly to inspire a detestation of the 

* Femmes presentees — those who had been presented at 
court prior to the revolution ; Jils de pendus — sons of those 
who had perished by the lantern, guillotine, &c. A more 
painful instance of French levity can scarcely be adduced. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 207 

game laws. I did not like it, et jmis je mennuie 
au spectacle. 

I send you an almanac of the last republican 
year ending in September, and a list of all who 
were guillotined — not accurate, for they have 
left out le gros Laborde;* also the paper with 
details of the Italian business. In a preceding 
one Buonaparte exhorts the Cispadane republic 
to make religion the basis of the new constitu- 
tion, and that religion the Roman Catholic one. 

There are daily published a hundred and six 
journals. 

The two horses by Bonchardon, from before 
the palace of Marly, now stand in the Place de 
la Revolution, corresponding with Mercury and 
Victory over the gates of the Tuileries. A few 
red caps remain on the public buildings. They 
look like lightning conductors. As the fleurs de 
lis have been chipped off the public edifices, one 
might imagine that Paris had been besieged and 
battered. 

Madame Laborde has begun to dress her ser- 
vants in livery. M. Koenig, Swedish secretary, 
* The list alluded to in a former note. 



208 LETTERS FROM THE 

has orders from his court to solicit for Sir Sid- 
ney's release. I fear it is a coup d epee dans lean. 
I went to the ball at I'hotel de Marbceuf, to 
which Lycee I am a subscriber. It was crowded. 
Carnot's wife was there, but there was no dis- 
tinction whatever paid to her, or particular no- 
tice taken of her. 



Feb. 15, 1797. 

I have received all yours; but if I had Tris- 
tram here, I would copy out Bishop Ernulphus's 
excommunication, and pronounce it upon Mrs. 
Talbot's Justinia, the brother-in-law, and the 
poor old creature — all beings I have not the 
slightest idea of. I am quite sick of them ; and 
the devil will have it that my man's name is 
Talbot ; so I have changed it to Henri, for the 
other puts me quite in a fidget. 

Whom can it be that you sent ten pounds to, 
and that the other {credite posteri !) refused ? 

Madame de Beauveau has not been in Paris 
since I came, and the Directory do not permit 
me to quit it. 

Necker has published a history of the revolu- 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &,C. 209 

tion, in vvliicli he praises the king and abuses 
the queen, but by affected omissions leaves 
much worse to be surmised than he has said. 
There is, as usual, a great deal about moi ; such 
as this : " II etoit question de me nommer, mais 
le parti de la reine I'emporta. Si Ton m'avoit 
nomme, aucun des malheurs qui ont desole la 
France ne seroient arrives." After that, vs^ho can 
read another page ? no7i ego ! 

I have just had a curious visit from Dr. Gem : 
he came to apologize for my not having been let 
in when I last called on him, and said the reason 
was his having suffered a great loss from having 
lately admitted a person, in consequence of which 
he now receives nobody. 

The following is his story. The other day, his 
gouvernante having gone to market, he opened 
the door, and a shabby fellow with a bundle of 
papers sat himself down, told him he waited upon 
him as a learned man, and as he was one also, 
he requested the loan of vingt sous. The doctor 
grew very uneasy, as he observed the man roll his 
eyes about qucerens quern devoret, and thought his 
only chance of saving his purse and life was 

VOL. II. p 



210 LETTERS FROM THE 

to acquiesce ; accordingly he dived into his 
greasy fob. Alas ! no sous were there ; Madame 
Anne had carried them all to market ; so the 
poor physician was forced to lug out an ecu. 
" And, would you believe it !" he added, — " the 
rascal jumped up and carried it off without re- 
turning the change ! "* 



Feb. 16, 1797. 

I have this morning agreed upon all the terms 
of the general exchange of prisoners. It is a 
delightful idea that it should fall to my lot, and 
be in my power, pa?' un trait de plume, to restore 
to liberty and joy, at least sixteen thousand 
men, who, upon an average, must have a hun- 

* Young Baron de K was more prudent. The beau- 
tiful Madame , who was said to have purloined and 

pawned the jewels of one of her admirers, met K.'s inti- 
mate friend, and said, " I have fallen in love with Monsieur 

de K ; bring him to me." The friend delivered the 

message, upon which the Baron, who did not possess even a 
gold brooch, ring, or the most trifling trinket, exclaimed, 
" Etesvous foil, mon ami, de me proposer une telle abomination'? 
Peste ! sify allois, elle mes voleroit mes bijoux . 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 211 

dred thousand persons benefited and rejoiced by 
their deliverance. 

Madame Cacciapore may, indeed, as well re- 
main where she is, instead of returning to Rome, 
for by this time Buonaparte is Dictator there. I 
think it would have answered political purposes 
better if he had pursued the Germans through 
the Tyrol, and not given them time to rally ; but 
probably his journey to Rome originated in va- 
nity, and his agreement with Spain to add to the 
power of Parma, Tuscany, and Naples, at the ex- 
pense of the pope ; otherwise, except plunder, 
what influence can the fate of poor Rome have 
upon the conditions of the peace ? 

I have a note from Madame d'Angevillers. 
She lives at Versailles in complete retirement. 
Her husband is at some court in Germany. 



Feb. 19, 1797. 

I have just been sitting with Mesdames de 
Beauveau and de Poix. The latter is nearly as I 
left her — the former older in her looks, politi- 

p 2 



212 LETTERS FROM THE 

quant as usual ; but when I accompanied her up 
stairs to her apartment, she spoke as a person 
quite lost to the world. She said her husband's 
death had prevented her from feeling public ca- 
lamities or her own danger, and that his loss, 
with the murder and misfortunes of so many 
friends, had made her quite tired of her exist- 
ence. She talked very affectionately of you. 
Ourica is grown tall, and except that her features 
are enlarged, nearly as she was. Madame de 
Beauveau has since learnt that the very day Ro- 
bespierre fell had been fixed for her execution, 
that of her brother the Due de Rohan, and of Ma- 
dame de Poix ; after being separated for eight 
months, they would have met in the fatal 
cart. 

I have just heard that the people of Loretto 
having made a show of resistance, Buonaparte 
had given up the city to be plundered for twenty- 
four hours. 

The report is, that Peregrinus Apostolicus is 
gone to Malta.* 

I do not know what the Abbe de Londres has 

* Pius VI., so designated by an ancient prophecy. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 213 

to live upon, unless it be air, for he lodges in a 
seventh story in the Quai des Orfevres. 

I have been dining at Perregaux'swith St. Foix, 
Talleyrand, Roederer, and Beaumarchais ; the 
latter is quite deaf, but still clever and sprightly. 
Yesterday 1 dined at Madame Charles de Damas', 
with all the Laborde family, and spent the even- 
ing with Madame d'Houdetot, once the wit and 
life of the court, and connected with the 
Marquis de St. Lambert, author of " Les Sai- 
sons." He is now old and infirm, but came to 
supper, and was very merry. We had also the 
Due de Rohan, Madame de Beauveau's brother. 
It was of Madame d'Houdetot that Rousseau 
was enamoured.* 

Yesterday a police officer brought a letter for 
Major Gall, requiring him to attend at the Bu- 
reau de Surveillance. From this ignorance of his 
departure, I conclude that la Surveillance est bien 

* St. Lambert, being jealous of Rousseau, wrote the fol- 
lowing lines : 

Dans le sein des faveurs de la beaute que j'aime, 
Je deteste les traits dont Tamour m'a frappe. 
Mon rival plus heureux goute an bonheur supreme : 
On nous trompe tous deux ; mais il est mieux trompe. 



214 LETTKES FROM THE 

relachee sur man covipte, since the time when I 
had quarante mouches a mes trousses. 

I have signed the preliminary convention, as a 
basis for the general exchange of jDrisoners, 
leaving two articles for the decision of our couit. 
Sir Sidney's release will be the immediate con- 
sequence of the ratification. His majesty offers 
a thousand more prisoners on that account. The 
French want four thousand ; I offered to split the 
difference, and informed Sir S. of the plan. He 
wrote to entreat 1 would give the four thousand 
at once, and he would pledge himself to retake 
them all in a week after he could get out to sea ! 



Feb. 26, 1797. 
At last 1 have received your solution of the 
Justinian riddle, which I should never have 
guessed. The task you impose upon me is a 
very difficult one indeed. I almost despair. I 
do not think it will be possible to extract one 
brass farthing, and I know of no means of attack 
with any prospect of success.* But I may be 
mistaken. 

* The ex-bishop de Coutances, being in great poverty in 
England, wished his sister to be applied to to send him money. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 215 

The account of your illness, though all danger 
was past when the letter came, distressed me so 
much that, except the business absolutely re- 
quired by my official duties, I have not been able 
to prevail upon myself to sit down and write a 
single line till now. I have done everything 
to dissipate my blue devils, and have actually 
rushed headlong into les fureiirs du Camaval, 
pour me disti^aire. 

You will compare me to Prince Bourdon, 
qui ne faisait plus que ses quatre repas pa?' jour ; 
— but it is true that with le trait de la rnort dans 
le ccEur, I have been en parties de plaisir 
in the Bois de Boulogne, at dinners and balls : 
cetoit danser sur la guillotine. It was a long 
time before I durst open yours, which arrived 
to-day, for fear it should be a testament de mort ; 
but, thank God, it has set my heart at rest. 

I live much with Madame de Maulde and her 
daughters. We agree very well together. I was 
with them at the ball at the " Lycee des Arts," 
which is held in the cirque, underground, in the 
middle of the Palais Royal. There was an abun- 
dance of dust, horrid smells, and bad company. 



216 LETTERS FROM THE 

To show you how merrily we Parisians live, to- 
day is the beginning of a fete or dejeuner an 
Bois de Boulogne ; then a concert in Paris, a 
di7ier ambigu, and a ball which is to cost a couple 
of thousand pounds, given by M. and Madame 
d'Angrelau. She is daughter to Peron, the 
builder. Her husband was a chocolate maker at 
Versailles, and has by the revolution made an 
immense fortune, having the contracts for the 
army, &c. ; on this account the wits call her 
" La Princesse Cacao." 

There is to-night a ball at Madame de Soye- 
court's, for six hundred people, dancing on the 
graves of their fathers, or rather, ankle deep in 
their blood : nimporte ! il faut danser ! 

I went some days since with the Perregaiix to a 
ball at I'Hotel de Marbceuf. The old proprietor, 
Madame de Marboeuf, was guillotined by Robes- 
pierre, because she had ordered her garden to be 
sown with hayseed for horses, instead of corn or 
potatoes for men. 

At a dinner where I was, at Formalague's, Rce- 
derer and La Grange got into an argument and 
grew loud. The former at last pulled out pistols, 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 217 

and laid them on each side of him on the 
table.* 

Le Bois de Boulogne is now the fashionable 
lounge, and Bagatelle, a sort of tavern ; both are 
open, and are very pretty v^-hen full of elegant 
people. Most of the Bois is cut down. 



March 5, 1797. 

1 dined two days ago at Madame de Damas', 
with tlie Princesse de Poise, Natalie de Noaiiles, 
Juste de Noailles, Abbe Morellet, deVagne, Por- 
talis, pere et fils, Delpy, et I'Abbe de Damas. It 
was a learned Hotel de Rambouillet party. Por- 
talis is the director of the set. Madame de 
Damas is very rich, and has bought Livry, 
I'abbe de Coulanges' benefice. 

Yesterday I was at Formalague's with Peletde 

* Some years past, a party were playing at whist at Wat- 
tier's club with Mr. B., whose discussion with Lord D. then 
occupied a good deal of public attention. To the astonisli- 
ment of all, Mr. D. suddenly put down his cards, pulled out a 
pair of pistols, and placed them by his side; upon which Lord 
A., who had just entered, and who was a kind of bite noire 
to B. and the Cause of this warlike display, exclaimed in his 
usual droll way, " I hope you do not expect your adversary to 
tbllow suit." 



218 LETTERS FROM THE 

la Lozere, Roze, and two or three more. Roze is 
a kind of clever intriguant, who keeps well with 
government, and does much business with the 
minister. I employed him to get Sir Sidney 
liberated, but I soon found he had boasted of 
more than he could do. 

We went this morning (a beautiful sunshiny 
day) to Bagatelle, which is national property, 
and open to the public, but only fashionable two 
days in the week. The belles of Paris, on those 
days, go there to stroll about, as much dressed out 
as if they were going to a ball. 

At this moment they are busy in the two coun- 
cils, drawing lots for a third of the conventionals 
to go out, and people seem very anxious. 

Buonaparte has granted peace to Pius VI., 
and sent an envoy to San Marino. That little 
old Spartan republic has answered with a great 
deal of dignity and simplicity, and refused the 
offer of an increase of territory. Their chiefs say 
that a visit from a general of so great a nation 
lately enfranchised, to their little asylum of 
liberty, appears like a dream to them. If Buona- 
parte now turns his arms towards the Tyrol, we 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 219 

shall see whether the proverb says right, that La 
fortune aime les plus jeunes ; for the Archduke 
Charles is the younger of the two. 

Some journals name Barthelemy as likely to 
be the new director, but it is improbable. I was 
told yesterday by a deputy whom I made ac- 
quaintance with at dinner, that he had wished to 
meet me, from the impression he had received by 
the account he had had of me in the Societe of 
the Directory. 



March 7, 1797. 

People are all on tiptoe here with the news of 
our bank having stopped payment — some glad, 
some sorry.* A depute, patriote, told Madame 
de Maulde he hoped this crisis would accelerate 
peace, and added, " On auroit le plusgr andplaisir 
a traiter avec Swinburne.^^ 

I understand Sir Sidney's name is involved in 
the papers of the royalist conspirators; another 

* The report of the Bank of England having suspended 
its pajments was then circulated in Paris. 



220 LETTERS FROM THE 

spoke in his wheel, which I wish they would not 
keep turning. 

I have intended an attack upon Madame de T. , 
but as yet I have not been able to satisfy myself 
as to the plan of it. I shall go this morning, 
and open the oblique trenches, by barely exposing 
the situation of the poor bishop. 

The minds of people have been agitated by tlie 
drawing of lots in the councils. For my part, 
I care little who governs, provided the country is 
peaceable and quiet. We are all on the stretch of 
expectation to know the particulars of Sir John 
Jervis's bold attack upon the Spanish fleet. 
People that reason presume the Spanish have been 
beaten, from all the lame paragraphs and ac- 
counts hitherto received. 

I have been reading Necker's history of the 
revolution, which I am surprised should be 
allowed to be printed and sold at Paris. 



March 13, 1797. 

I dined yesterday at Madame d'Houdetot's, 
with Madame de Damas, St. Lambert, &c., — a 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 2-21 

vei'Y pleasant party. The alarm which the ope- 
rations in our bank occasioned here seems to 
have blown over ; besides, Jervis's victory will 
have a very powerful effect, they were so sure of 
his fleet being destroyed. From some strange 
vague Spanish letters that the Spanish ambas- 
sador officially announced, every one believed 
that the victory was on their side. 

I have got through Necker's declamation, for it 
is more that than anything else, and most of it 
gratis dictum. Lally has also published a defense 
des emigres. It comes with an odd grace 
from him who ran away first of anybody, and 
nobody (except Madame d'Herrion) knows why. 

Yesterday I spent at Auteuil with Madame de 
Boufflers. M. Chevalier seems a sensible, clever 
man ; and if he is not husband to the Comtesse 
Amelie, it must be because they choose to do 
without the ceremony. Emmanuel is clever, but 
untractable and spoilt. The Abbe Morellet, who 
has been spending several days with them, says 
Emmanuel tormented him to death. He could not 
read, when, luckily for him, his mamma and 
grandmamma were put in prison, and he re- 



•222 LETTERS FROM THE 

mained with Madame Lorenzi. When they met 
again, the}^ were quite amazed to find he could 
read and write very well. 

Madame de Boufflers has just bought of the na- 
tion half of her estate very cheap. During the 
reign of assignats, they built themselves a house 
in Normandy, improved the place, and did a vast 
deal of good, with literally nothing. 

I have heard that Truguet, on delivering tiie 
convention which I had signed, had a smart alter- 
cation sur mon sujet, with the cart-horse of Col- 
mar, Reubel. 

I was at the Cercle de I'Harmonie, a new con- 
cert under the direction of the mulatto St. George ; 
it is held at the old apartment of the Duchesse 
d'Orleans in the Palais Royal. 



March 23, 1797. 
Monsieur Koenig has made a very precipitate 

retreat from Paris, but whether by order of Swe- 
den or of France, is not known. Two agents of 
the Directory have been to Abbe Kearney's friend 
to ask questions about me, and said I might re- 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, SiC. 22*3 

main all my life ; they would not object to it. 
Hautefort will have it, qiiil est question de moi 
pour la paix. 

I dined yesterday at Prince Corsini's, with 
Caraccioli and Denon, who now excels in engrav- 
ing beasts. 

An embargo is said to be laid at Calais for all 
Germinal, (from March 21 to April 19,) lest any- 
thing should transpire respecting the elections, 
which promise to be as quiet as those for Old 
Sarum. I write this by way of Hamburgh. 
With regard to the books Mr. Eure wishes me 
to send him, I understand divinity is contra- 
band. 

How can B. know anything about the time of 
my staying here ? Surely our people would not 
recall me upon my arranging the cartel ; for 
other prisoners will be taken, and must be looked 
after, were there no other reason. I should ap- 
prehend the folks here are more likely to pack me 
off a la Koenig. But even that I doubt ; for I 
cannot but think that peace must be desirable 
after the elections. 



224 LETTERS FROM THE 

March -lb, 1797. 

I wrote two days ago by Hamburgh, and begin 
this without knowing how it is to go. The 
minister of marine means to ask an induloence 
for his and ray correspondence, against the strict 
orders of the embargo which is laid for two 
months upon ail the posts, either to prevent any 
accounts reaching England of the tenure of the 
elections, or of the projected invasions. 

All seems harmony and quiet in the elections, 
but great and barefaced corruption in the legis- 
lature. Little Caraccioli, Lucchesis' secretary, 
is come here to prepare the way for Commander 
Rufo, the Neapolitan envoy, who is in London on 
his road hither. Caraccioli is called La Con- 
science de Portalis. 

You must know that my work here has given 
me a vast insight into a variety of official routine 
and political matters, and I begin to think I 
should make a good working minister of state. 
My style in French is approved of, in these days 
of freedom of style, as being energetic and 
original. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 225 

I am rather sanguine as to a prolongation of 
my political life ; — first because I and my merits 
are now personally known to the king ! He has 
a good memory, and when he takes a liking or a 
good opinion, is very pertinacious. Secondly, 
because my being employed as negotiator begins 
to be a general idea here among all parties ; and 
you know how much the French of all classes are 
governed by general opinion. 



March 30, 1797. 

I have received my final instructions about 
Sir Sidney Smith. No cartel is to be esta- 
blished, unless he is put on his parole like any 
other prisoner ; so that, probably, my mission is 
on the eve of its departure. 

I am apprized of, and expect hourly, an order 
from the Directory, to remove to the distance of 
ten leagues from Paris. Reubel has at length 
carried his point. I believe Fontainbleau is the 
place fixed upon. The marine are outrageous 
about it, and have at least prevented the first idea 

VOL. II. q 



226 LETTERS FROM THE 

of sending me quite away, which, from some 
calumny or other, was the intention of the go- 
vernment. It is of consequence that I should 
remain, for the sake of the prisoners. I am to 
come back the 20th of May, when the elections 
will be over. By that time the Directory may be 
softened concerning Sir Sidney ; time is gained, 
and we know not what may turn up. The coun- 
try air will do me good — I shall have time to 
jasminer, and scribble to you. 3fe voila commc 
toujoiirs, Monsieur Tant mieux, ou V Opthniste. 



April 4, 1797. 
This letter goes by a cartel from Nantes. I 
am setting out for Fontainbleau by order of the 
Directory, who object to my presence during the 
elections. Rather than be de trop here, I shall 
strive to pass my time pleasantly, as the season 
advances, and the situation is delightful. I am 
told there is some good company, mostly ci- 
devants reduced ; and I am loaded with recom- 
mendations. The minister and commissaires are 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &c. 227 

very civil, and desire me not. to think anything 
personal is meant to me, but my removal is a 
general measure, common to the Portuguese 
ambassador, &c. 

I much fear the determination of the govern- 
ment here not to consent to Sir Sidney Smith's 
release, and that of our ministers that his re- 
lease must be a sine qua non, will end in the ge- 
neral exchange being refused on both sides. 
These series of victories over the Emperor, Trieste 
taken, &c., will not render the Directory more 
obedient to our mandates, or value our threats 
the more. In the mean time, innumerable pri- 
soners are kept in durance, because one point is 
not obtained at present, for it must be ceded at 
last. The liberty, perhaps the lives, of above a 
thousand poor detenus is depending. I have 
written this to Lord Grenville, which may per- 
haps displease him. 

Will it not be a pity if the business I am 
now upon, and which is now perfected, should 
fall to the ground, — which 1 much fear will be the 
case ? Patience and conciliation would brins; 
about matters better than violence. 

q2 



228 LETTERS FROM THE 

Adieu until I write from Fontainbleau. How 
different that place will appear to what it was 
when I was there with the court in 1786 ! 



Fontainbleau, April 12, 1797. 

I have settled myself in pleasant lodgings 
until the expiration of my month's exile. The 
spring is backward, but the forest, which is 
dreadfully cut up, even hacked as it is and with- 
out leaves, is charming. 

The day before yesterday I walked about the 
Valorin, where the views of the Seine are noble ; 
and yesterday to the long ridge of rocks south of 
the town, wliere poor Marie Antionette had a 
wide road made along the summit, and the whole 
eminence planted with maritime pines. To-day 
I strolled about Thomesy, a large village situated 
in an elbow of the Seine, environed on three sides 
by the forest. The vineyards there produce the 
finest Chasselas grapes, which are sent daily 
down the river to Paris. On the opposite side of 
the Seine rises a lofty rocky mountain, covered 
with wood, and at its foot is le Chateau des 
Pressoirs, in a beautiful situation. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 229 

As I wander about the place, what recollec- 
tions come over my mind, like the heavy clouds 
of summer, full of thunder and storms. I could 
fancy myself an eagle hovering about this ancient 
seat of kings, or a being of other times escaped 
from the Deluge. Behold the ruins of the habi- 
tation of the mighty, whom I here saw in such 
splendour only eleven years since, when I was 
one of the many among the courtiers. There I see 
the queen's gilt closet, where Eden introduced 
me, and where I was greeted with her sweetest 
smiles. Where now is the pomp of Louis XIV. 
and Louis XV. ? Where their ill-fated descen- 
dants ? 

I sometimes think of the words of your favou- 
rite psalm : " I myself have seen them in great 
power, and flourishing like a green bay-tree ; I 
went by, and lo ! they were gone, and their place 
could nowhere be found," &c. And here am I 
now, a public minister, exiled to this very place 
by the men, the rulers of the earth, who crum- 
bled to the dust all that mighty pomp and gran- 
deur ! 

I could write this nonsense for an hour, for 



230 LETTERS FROM THE 

since my arrival here I have been troubled by the 
most melancholy reflections and recollections; 
every place, every object, brings to my mind the 
scenes of 1786. 

I passed the place where poor John stopped 
M. de Tourzel's horse ten minutes before it 
knocked his brains out. John is dead, and 
Madame de Tourzel has a subscription ball at 
Paris a six francs ! 

All rente, I have a charming apartment, and 
my host was a member of the Comitt de Salut 
Puhllqiie ; but he is quite altered, and ashamed of 
it. This place is very anti-directorial. My time 
passes quick — I rise early, write a great deal, — 
for a great deal I have to write ; then take long- 
walks, and eat a shameful dinner — another long- 
stroll, a visit, and a chat — then write till I go to 
bed. 

I see it is put in the French papers that the 
English ministry will have no cartel until Sir S. 
Smith is released. If so, and as I fear not agreed 
to, all the negotiations will go into fumo, and 
your humble servant will return home like the 
pot de terre in the fable, Clopi?i Clopant comme 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 231 

il pent ; that is to say, if he is not sent to the 
Temple, to keep company with this chivalrous 
subject of public contention. It is certainly a mis- 
fortune for a country, when family interests out- 
weigh those of the public. 

The De Mauldes are coming to stay with me. 
I have such kind letters from them, and so charm- 
ing an epistle from Hortense, that I believe I am 
turning fool in my old age, and have caught my- 
self two or three times looking in the glass, and 
giving my man instructions how to dress my 
hair. 

I never experienced greater friendship and cor- 
diality than from Perregaux. He is much abused 
for having been afraid, and for giving way to the 
system of terror ; but I should like to know if 
those who abuse him, and who ran away entirely, 
were not as much afraid at least. 

I have had the satisfaction of receiving some 
pleasing letters from prisoners to whom I have 
rendered service, written propria motu after their 
arrival. Men are not so ungrateful as you ima- 
gine. I suspect ingratitude is often provoked by 
something in the behaviour of the obh'ger, which 



•232 LETTERS FROM THE 

hurts the pride of the obliged, and settles the 
account. 

There are nine English prisoners, whom I 
have been clothing, confined in the chateau, in a 
room belonging to the queen's apartments. The 
municipalite here have sent me the keys, and a 
person to open every room to monsieur le com- 
7nissaire. There are also two hundred Austrian 
prisoners in a wretched state — the subjects of 
Marie Antoinette's brother ! I have given them 
a great dinner. 

Yesterday the great pond was drained by 
order, and the remaining fish sold. I had one 
at my table, but not of the time of Francois I. * 

We have heavenly weather. I have just taken 
a long walk by moonlight in the forest, and 
meant to have written more, but am too tired. I 
know not whether I shall receive any letters 
during the embargo, or if mine will reach their 
destination ; at all events, I shall have had the 
pleasure of writing. So God bless you all ! 

* Some of the carp were said to have been placed there in 
the time of that monarch.* 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 233 

April 22, 1797, 
Nothing more lias occurred since my last, in 
the political line ; but in my private concerns a 
great increase of agrement has taken place, as M. 
de Maulde and his two daughters have been with 
me some days. As he and his wife are like two 
buckets in a well, (that is, totally incompatible 
together,) she cannot come at the same time ; 
so I content myself with Monsieur, who is very 
merry and facetious. The girls are both amiable, 
particularly Eugenie, who is full of sense ,and 
accomplishments. She, as well as her sister, 
plays admirably upon the violin, and sings well. 
We had yesterday what I am sure you never 
heard, a quartetto by four ladies on the violin 
and alto, and a middling violoncello — very well 
performed. A Mad. de Mortagne plays charm- 
ingly on the harp. 

The ci-devants look rather askew at De Maulde, 
because he was employed by the Convention. 
There is plenty of company, and great names, 
however reduced in their circumstances ; but we 
walk out a great deal, and mix but little in the 
society, which, in this small town, is very much 



234 LETTERS FROM THE 

made up of eommerage. Madame de Pradelles 
is an exception, but she leaves us in a few days, 
as she is going into the country for the summer. 

Some fine seasonable rains have brought out 
spring very fast, and the oaks are beginning to 
shoot. The low gardens from the palace to the 
Seine are full of nightingales. I have under my 
eye, from the window where I am writing, a 
circle of rocks and wood, of various tints, and 
nearer to me numerous gardens en herceaux et 
espaliers ; all kept in the nicest order ; where all 
their aged proprietors (for there are no young 
people left) are busied from sunrise to sunset in 
the various labours of gardening. Ours has a 
spacious arbour and a summer-house. Our land- 
lord being a florist, flowers cheer the eyes in the 
greatest part of his grounds. Our next door 
neighbour is a furious Jacobin, for the present 
quieted, and turning his attention to the improve- 
ment of his premises. 

The town of Fontainbleau is large, but not 
populous, because almost every habitation has a 
large garden. It was originally built and in- 
creased by the retired servants and pensioners of 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 235 

the court ; and it was remarked at the beginning 
of the troubles, that the great destroyers, the most 
violent demagogues, were the Bornes, viz. the 
persons who subsisted upon the pensions and 
legacies left or given them by princes or minis- 
ters, and which they lived upon here. You will 
say that this circumstance militates against my 
idea of the natural gratitude of man. 

We walked to-day through the forest on the 
Nemours side. The crosses at the meeting of 
roads are all thrown down and broken every- 
where. There have been six thousand acres of 
wood cut since the revolution ; but as there are 
no deer or wild boars left, and the cattle are all 
herded, the young wood is getting up again. 

The people about here who were pensioners of 
the court and nobility, were disappointed in their 
hopes of sharing the spoil. The manufactures of 
porcelain, now established at the former govern- 
ment house of Monsieur de Montmorin, are vio- 
lent Sans-culottes ; but the municipalite is com- 
posed of very moderate men, and the commune 
is very quiet. 

Yesterday high mass, Tenebrce and Salul, were 



236 LETTERS FROM THE 

solemnized at the parish church with as much 
pomp as ever, and the church was crowded. 
There is no salary for the priest, but a collection 
made. 

The havock made in the woods is great, be- 
cause every one enters them that chooses, and, 
under pretence of getting dead wood, they hack 
and break everything. It is a pity to see noble 
junipers broken and torn to pieces. 

It is now so lono^ since I have heard from 
home, that I feel really like an exile. I might 
as well be in the East Indies. The Perregaux 
write to me every post ! which gives a little life 
to my epistolary existence. The peace, which is 
signed, or nearly signed, wi ththe emperor,* will 
soon bring our matters to a crisis, and settle 
them one way or the other. 



April 28, 1797. 
Having no opportunity of sending letters with 
any possibility of guessing when the}' may reach 
you, I have written this by scraps, till the date 
has crept on a whole week. 

* Peace of Canipo Formio. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 237 

The victories on tlie Rhine, though unneces- 
sary, make a brilliant conclusion of a war with 
an enemy, as completely thrashed as it is possible, 
and they establish the republic upon solid grounds 
as to any foreign attacks. Whether our people 
will come to or no, time, and a very short time, 
will show. 

Poor Le Moine has been a long time plaguing 
me about his translation of Milton. From the 
ennui a page or two gave me, and other occupa- 
tions, I had quite forgotten that I had the manu- 
scripts The other day he reminded me of it, 
informing me, at the same time, that it is going 
to be published with a preface, stating that I had 
not only looked over and corrected it, but that it 
had my approbation, and specifying that I am 
un homme connu avantageusement dans la carrihre 
Uteraire et diplomatique. 

Startled, as you may suppose, by this declara- 
tion, I read the first book to my hosts, who, as 
well as myself, found the French execrable, and 
infinitely below several translations already pub- 
lished. Add to these my own observation of 
most unpardonable contre-sens and blunders, viz. 



238 LETTERS FROM THE 

as a specimen : " defied the best of paynim chi- 
valry," translation, " dejia les plus brave cheva- 
liers du royaume de Pajiim." So, on the emergency 
of the case, I took a pen in hand, and filled four 
pages with observations, solely upon the miscon- 
ception of the English, and sent them to him, 
with an earnest recommendation not to launcli 
his translation into the world until he had read 
the other translations. 

I am afraid my sound advice will not please 
him ; but anything is better than having my 
name hooked into such a paltry business. I re- 
member enough of Mademoiselle Keralio*s trans- 
lation of my travels, to make me tremble at see- 
ing myself exposed to a second massacre. By- 
the-bye, she took a furious part in the revolution. 

Madame de Pradelles is the life of this place, 
though she does not like the people. She has 
taught them to amuse themselves, but as she has 
not all the money she wants, she is obliged to 
eke out her year by economical visits to her 
friends. People this year begin to get back to 
their chateaux, and the peasants again dance in 
the woods on Sunday evenings. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, kc. 239 

During my present state of uncertainty as to 
the future, I employ myself in answering all the 
letters from my agents and the prisoners, every 
other day, by the same post that brings them. 
They never had so punctual a correspondent in 
their lives. The De Mauldes now and then act 
as my French secretaries, to order clothes for the 
prisoners, or argue upon the value of their 
worsted stockings. 



May 12, 1797. 
I can give no guess when you have heard from 
me, or whether this will ever reach you ; but 
what I have to write is of so little consequence, 
that it matters little what becomes of it. My life 
here is perfectly rural and uniform. The De 
Mauldes sing and play in the evening. We live 
comfortably. I walk a great deal in the morning, 
and have some hours employment in writing- 
letters and overhauling accounts. The weather 
is wet and boisterous ; but as this sandy soil is 
dry in a minute, the rain of many hours is no 



240 LETTERS FROM THE 

impediment to our excursions the first fair mo- 
ment. 

I have only nine prisoners to superintend here, 
and one of them has given me an opportunity of 
showing my skill as a doctor, — much to my own 
surprise. He had had an ague on him for eight 
months. Recollecting the remedy which cured 
the folks at Menil, I luckily got the calamus 
aromaticus here, gave him a dose in a glass of 
wine, and ordered him some broth. The ague 
let him that day, and has never returned. 

I conclude my exile will not be prolonged be- 
yond the 25th of this month, when they say the 
elections will be over. For my part, I should 
have no objection to another month's exile at 
this fine season of the year, and this charming 
situation, where I am absolutely obliged to do 
nothing. Being forced into idleness is a great 
temptation towards liking it, and one easily 
learns all the luxury of the far nicnte. I shall 
turn up my nose at the dirt and closeness of 
Paris when I return. How long I shall have to 
remain there will depend upon what our minis- 
ters will order me to say or do, agreeable or dis- 
agreeable. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 241 

May 16, 1797. 

We spent a pleasant day yesterday, having 
dined at St. Brian, a chateau near the first post 
towards Paris, about two miles fj;om the edge of 
the forest. It is surrounded by a wood cut into 
alleys, and a moat. Monsieur de Chateauvillard, 
the owner, was a " maitre de la chambre des 
comptes," and has saved his property to the ex- 
tent of four thousand a year. He is now presi- 
dent of the district, and lives like a sultan. 
There were many ladies there ; among others, 
Mademoiselle de Ferrieres, a fine girl, but very 
poor. Her father was an officer of rank, who lost 
all in the revolution, and is now blind, and a 
pauper in the Invalids. She paints small por- 
traits in oil for her bread. 

There was also M. de St. Sauveur, who was a 
lieutenant-general and cordon rouge. His own 
people plundered his property, but he remained 
hid during the terreur, and afterwards retired to 
live at St. Sauveur, upon the wreck of his 
fortune. He is a chief justice of the peace, and 
now rules and punishes his former vassal?, in a 

VOL. II. R 



242 LETTERS FROM THE 



more severe and summary wa}' tlian lie ever 
could liave done under the old regime. 



May 20, 1797. 

We dined yesterday at the Chateau de Beuvron. 
It belonged to an officer of the guards of thatname, 
who sold it for assignats to the Notary Le Fevre de 
la Boulaye, and now is at law with him to re- 
gain possession. All the wood had been cut 
down before the sale. As Beuvron discharged all 
his debts with the assignats paid him by Le 
Fevre, he appears to have had a fair price, what- 
ever his creditors may have had. 

To-day, Lady Rodney and her daughters, with 
the De Mauldes and myself, dined at the Her- 
mitage de Franchard, where there is a good 
spring among the rocks, though the stream looks 
as green as cabbage water. The situation and 
rocks are verv romantic. The church is now a 
forest-keeper's house. On the wall is the figure 
of a hermit. There is a dripping stone down be- 
low, and the water is reckoned good for various 



COURTS OF PARTS, XAPLES, &C. 243 

disorders. The peasants still preserve tlieir su- 
perstition. This chapel was, I think, founded 
by Philippe le Bel. 

The Vallee de la Solle (a large circular plain 
surrounded by ridges of woody rocks) is replete 
with beauties. It has many noble beeches, and 
groups of oaks ; the timber is remarkable for its 
size, and height, which is prodigious in the part 
called La Tillas, I measured an oak seven feet 
in diameter at one foot from the ground. Along 
the Gorges de Muines, the rocks are thrown to- 
gether in long piles and mountains. The situa- 
tion and formation of these freestone and sandy 
rocks are curious subjects of conjecture. They 
are narrow, and point from north-west to south- 
east, as if a flood or river channel had run for 
ages in that direction. The Mont de Montagu is 
a lofty, round, mountain-wood, covered with 
large blocks of stone, and, what is remarkable, 
those on the top are all indented and marked on 
their outsides with squares or lozenges, like the 
rippling of waters. These rocks extend many 
miles. The largest piece is le long boyau. 

I have found in my perambulations many cu- 

n 2 



244 LETTERS FROM THE 

rious orchisses, and other beautiful wild flowers ; 
wliite campion, low creeping broom, red gera- 
nium, globularia, orange-leaved euphorbia, an- 
thericum liliago, pink restharrow, white cistus, 
Solomon's seal, lily of the valley, the maritime 
rose, and a small yellow rose, sweet-scented 
violets, blue milkworts, heaths, broom, &;c. 



June 7, 1797. 

Your letters are come, with a load of despatches 
of importance, and letters of all sorts. I was in 
such a hurry to do everything that was neces- 
sary to prevent mischief, repair the neglect of 
others, &c., that I scarce found time to read and 
answer yours. I am now a little more at lei- 
sure, though by no means quite rid of the load 
of public correspondence which is come in a 
lump, and is very heavy. Besides, at the same 
time the " commission des echanges" has given 
me a very voluminous parcel of memoirs to exa- 
mine, palliate, refute, &c., for I am le grand 
mediateur des deMX cotes. Both parties believe 



COURTS OF TARIS, NAl'LES, 8:c. 245 

me, and yield to my arguments ; but they are 
always complaining, always ready to pull caps, 
and I am continually running about with my 
pen 2^our mettre le hold. I have got quite the 
knack of it, and have a great deal to do to per- 
suade both parties that they are quarrelling about 
absolute nonsense. I have sent duplicates of 
my letters, about business, by different channels ; 
therefore I hope all will be pacified. 

Think of our old friend Barthelemy having 
been unanimously carried up to the vacant 
seat among the Directory. His brother the me- 
dallist* is gone to overcome his nolo eplscopari, 
and bring him to Paris. 

The De Mauldes left me last week. 

M. Perregaux writes me word that a report 
has been made to the minister about my return, 
and by him to the Directory ; so that I pre- 
sume my stay here will not be much longer. 
Meanwhile I make the most of my time ; for I 
rise early, and take large strides across the divine 
forest in every direction. It is so delicious, 
after clambering over rock and traversing sandy 

* Author of Les Voyages dii Jeune Anacharsis. 



240 , LETTERS FROM THF 

plains, to enter arched dark walks of miles long, 
cut through groves of the noblest beech, birch, 
and oak, so cool, so silent, so much my own. 

I this morning walked straight from the obelisk 
(erected to Maria Antoinette's four children, now 
defaced and crowned with a red cap, in its turn 
out of fashion and rotting,) to the very ex- 
tremity of the forest, seven miles or better, by a 
route famous in being called after the name of 
De Vidosson, who was killed in it by Zarnet in 
1608. I then turned down to Moret, drew the 
view, walked home, and am now quite fresh, 
writing to you. You see how the climate agrees 
with me. 

The Grand Lama Maniaduc's death did not 
surprise me, except as far 1 had completely for- 
gotten to think about him.* Tlie consternation 
must be prodigious. Where will they cast the 
anchor of their faith now ? 

The Serenissima has made a rude casada.'f 
Never was a government so easily overthrown 
and dissolved. As to Austria, it looks as if 

* A disciple of Cagliostro, and a great magnetiser, much 
in vogue at tliat time. 
1 Genoa. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPTES, SiC. 247 

money or disaffection had settled much of the 
contest. 

I have an answer from Madame de Tahirii, so 
cautiously worded that it is unintelligible ; but 1 
suppose one may surmise that it is satisfactory, 
so you may copy it out, and send it to the poor 
old man. I have informed her that I sent him 
a draft for fifty pounds, which I make no doubt 
will be repaid. 

Everything now seems to take a turn towards 
tranquillity and sociableness.*' Many revolution- 
ary laws are on the point of being repealed, 
and the new Director's speech breathes peace. 
He is perfectly at home, they say, in his new 

* The reaction had commenced, and al! persons panted 
for a return to the sociability and courtesies of former times. 
Social amusements, so long exiled, were revived and eagerly 
sought after. People commenced to breathe a new air. 
Hope awoke in their hearts, and that politeness, which hide- 
ous cynicism had abolished, was regenerated. Some Salons, 
amongst others that of Madame de Montesson, aunt to Ma- 
dame de Genlis, were reopened ; and although men still ad- 
dressed each other as Citoyen, they saluted women with 
Madame. One curious fact merits record, viz. at no period 
were so many theatres open in Paris, and never, according to 
official returns, were they so nmch frequented as from 1793 
to 1798. The number amounted to twenty-five, of which 
nine gave operas. 



248 LETTERS FROM THE 

clothes, and tlie country appears satisfied with 
him. 

Perregaux informs me that M. Barthelemy 
recollects me with infinite pleasure, and pro- 
mises to speak immediately about the absur- 
dity of my being reltgue at Fontainbleau. He 
also says that Reubel is more pleasantly inclined 
than he was. 

The ministre de la marine has, through the 
commissioners of exchange, desired me to exert 
myself in obtaining from the king a pardon for 
Captain Long, an Irishman born, but married 
and settled these twenty years in France, taken 
in the command of a privateer, and to be tried 
for his life. I have, as desired, written on the 
subject. 

We had a comedy last w eek acted by ladies 
and gentlemen, and Bourdon was the " Nigaud " 
in Le Sourd. I dined yesterday at Montgermont, 
the seat of Monsieur de Gontaut, who is, but 
does not now call himself. Due de Biron. He 
married a financier's daughter of vast fortune, a 
Mademoiselle Palerme, a woman of wit and 
taste. The house is quite a palace, with a shrub- 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 249 

])ery laid out round it d i Anglaise. The aca- 
cias in flower are beautiful. Adjoining to her 
bed-room, and open to her bed, is a noble gallery 
or conservatory. At its further end is a very 
good marble copy of the Apollo of Belvedere, 
which Gontaut brought from Rome. The con- 
servatory is kept in a most slovenly manner, and 
has nothing in it but flowerless lilacs. 

Gontaut's wife was rendered very unhappy by 
his conduct in the revolution, and by her own 
losses. He has been courting the daughter of a 
famous Madame Case, who once was a great 
beauty, and made a great noise ; but his nose 
has been put out of joint by his son.* 

* Madame d'Esparbes, a near relation of this lady, was 
once an inmate of the Pare atix Cerfs, and was so capricious 
and immoral in her liaisons, that Louis XV. at length lost all 
patience, and rebuked her, saying, — " How, madam, can 
you expect me to have the slightest regard for you, when I 
know that you are in love with half my subjects ? What ex- 
cuse have you?" — " Ah, sire !" replied she, pretending to 
blush, " I am so kind-hearted." — " Why, there is Choiseul," 
continued the king. " He is so powerful, sire," replied she. 
" Well, then, there is Richelieu." " He is so clever and 
agreeable, sire." " Good— but there is Monville, who is dull 
a^ an owl." " But he is so handsome, and has such a beautiful 
leg, sire!" "I grant that," rejoined Louis ; "but what ex- 



250 LETTERS FROM THE 

June '28, 1797. 

Monsieur and Mademoiselle de Maiilde are 
returned to spend a few days with me, which will 
enliven my evenings should the rain continue ; 
but in fact they have brought back the sunshine. 

I know not yet when I am to remove to Paris. 
Barthelemy sends me word to apply to the Direc- 
tory, which I have already done. 

We spent a day with the Princesse de Bergues 
(formerly one of the queen's ladies; at her house 
on the river, which was built for the king's pres- 
soir, being originally the place where his grapes 
were pressed and his wine made ; and both Fran- 
cois premier and Henry quatre were very fond of 
it, and with great reason. The. house is not much 
raised above the meadows ; in fact, the ground 
story is close to the rocks, out of which several 
streams of water flow into all parts of the building. 
From each end runs out a noble terrace, under 
which are the orangery and the kitchen garden, 
in different levels. The rocky mountains, covered 

cuse have you for the Duke d'Aumant, who is as ugly as a 
monkey, and as ill-shaped as a parenthesis." " Ah, sire !" 
responded Madame d'E. with a deep sigh, " he is so devo- 
tedly attached to your majesty !'' 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 251 

with fine trees, vise almost perpendicularly behind 
the house. The whole range or park is immense. 
The river sweeps along in front for some miles, 
forming a large crescent. Moret, and many vil- 
lages in the distance, scattered among groves of 
fruit trees and vineyards, seem one picturesque 
street. All this is backed by the rich mass of 
forest, which appears to have no bounds. I 
scarcely ever saw a landscape equal to this in the 
same style, for the hills are bolder than about 
Richmond, and tlie culture more varied. 

The lady of the house ( a Castelanne by 
birth) is a cheerful, sensible woman, extremely 
fond of the place, and very well satisfied witli 
having saved such a remnant of her fortunes. A 
great deal of the fine timber has been cut down for 
the support of life. 

Did I ever tell you Monsieur de Castillon was 
alive and well ? He has refused being chosen a 
deputy, having given up the world since his 
misfortunes, among which the greatest blow was 
his son's being guillotined. 

Think of Cosway's friend, David the painter ! 
Before the 9th Thermidor he came to Fontain- 



252 • LETTERS FROJM THE 

bleau, took a minute, and made the list of about 
eight hundred persons to be murdered, and set- 
tled everything for their execution on a certain 
day. I have met the monster in the passages of 
the Louvre, but he hangs his tiger-head and face, 
and turns aside. 

Dominick Meade and Lynch came here to 
visit me, but the former ate so much fruit that 
he was obliged to hurry back to Paris, not to be 
out of reach of his doctor. 

Paris, with all its faults, must have wonderful 
attractions, for I am pestered by correspondents, 
such as Madame Martinville, Chevalier Jerning- 
ham, &c., who are dying to come in. I am 
sure I cannot tell what they expect to find, and 
I advise them to wait patiently until there is a 
peace. 

If I am here when the season serves, (which 
1 dare say I shall, for any negotiation by Lord 
Malmesbury seems to me a farce,) I will take 
care to send you the pomponne roses. 

What an event, your plants of lady's slipper 
blowing ! I had long given them all up. Ajyro- 
2)os, at the Pressoir the other day I found the 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 253 

most beautiful bee orchis I ever saw. I meaut 
to have painted and sent it to you, but an old 
hag of an abbesse defroquee took it to look at, 
and broke it all to pieces. 



JuhjU, 1797. 

You that know the people here so well (and 
they are not much altered) will not be surprised, 
but I am sure highly diverted, with the escapade 
of my little friend Eugenie, which I am going 
to transcribe from her own letter, received the 
day before yesterday. It is quite in your own 
way, and I think may make a curious figure in 
the annals of the Republic a thousand years 
hence, like the Clelias, Egerias, &c. of Rome. 
You must first take one thing for granted, that I 
never gave her any commission to say or do any- 
thing for me ; it was all zeal and gaiete de cceur. 
Pray take notice that this smart young lady 
of twenty-two is alone with ?ijille de cuisine at 
Paris, while her mother is at Liege. 

" J'ai ete au Directoire, non avec les deux per- 



254 LETTERS FROM THE 

sonages que vous connoissez depuis longtems, 
qiioiqu'ils me promettoient monts et merveilles. 
Lasse de tout cela, j'ai songe a un autre, dont je 
suis sur de la discretion quant a la demarche ; 
car pour le reste il n'a rien entendu. II y avoit 
comme d'ordinaire seance publique, et c'etoit 
Barthelemy qui presidoit. Je me suis avisee, 
apres I'avoir bien examine, etant pres de lui, de 
retourner dans la premiere autichambre, pour lui 
ecrire qu'il etait prie de se rappeller de vous, et 
pas autre chose absolument. Je lui ai remis 
mon ecrit dans la main. II me dit, ' Soyez 
bien sure, Madame, que je ne I'oublie point, mais 
il y a malheureusement des difficultes ;' et il 
disoit cela avec un air penetre et plein d'amitie 
pour vous, qui m'a charmee.' ' J'y pense,' 
ajouta-t-il, ' soyez en sure.' 

" II avoit son entourage de messagers d'etat et 
de secretaires, et il dut sen tenir la. La seance 
etant finie, il passa dans la salle d'audience par- 
ticuliere, et ce fut la ou Ton m'introduisit pour 
parler a Carnot. Barthelemy y etait, et me re- 
connut. II vint a moi, et me demanda si je vous 
connoissais. Je lui repondis que oui. * Je ne 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 255 

cesse d'y penser,' dit il ; ' je sais qu'il s'enniij^e 
beaiicoup, et cela est tout simple.' Je lui dis 
combien vous etiez eiichante, ainsi que Madame 
S. d'appreiidre sa nomination. 'Ah!' dit-il, 
' j'en suis persuade ; est-elle ici V — ' Non; dans 
I'incertitude des clioses on ne pent gu^res faire 
voyager une famille nombreuse.' — ' Sans doute : 
se porte elle bien?' — ' Oui, au moins dans les 
deruieres lettres.' ' Je suis bien fache de le 
voir la — il devrait reclamer.' ' II a fait une 
petition au Directoire.' ' Je n'en ai pas encore 
entendu parler — nous est-elle envoyee ?' — ' Oui, 
monsieur.' — 'En ce cas nous en parlerons.' 
Cela fut prononce avee I'accent de I'amitie. 
Carnot pendant ce tems donnoit audience a. 
quelques person nes ; lorsque mon tour fut venu, 
il m'u reconnue, et me re^ut fort bien," «Scc. 

After all, it is a fine thing for every citizen to 
have the liberty of seeing and accosting the 
chief of the state, and laying their grievances at 
the fountain head. They may not be redressed, 
for that must depend upon various causes and 
combinations ; but you are at least sure they are 
made known, and not smuggled by intermediate 



256 LETTERS FROM THE 

officers. It is an art which all monarchs have 
practised, that wish to be popular ; but they soon 
grow tired of it, and the people of them ; for 
when the lower classes find it leads to nothing, 
they begin to see through the bubble. 

We are preparing to-day to receive the Turkish 
ambassador, who is to stay three days here, and 
to be harangued by the municipalite. 

I should not talk of the beauties of Fontain- 
bleau, if I thought they would tempt you to infi- 
delity. The}' do not 7ne ; I see no dunghill like 
my own, no trees, no water, no rocks, no moon — 
I dare not say sun — comparable to ours ; but, with 
that exception, tota Anglia mihi sordet ; I prefer 
France. You will laugh at my neighbourhood. 
On one side I have les dames de St. Cyr, from 
Versailles, with twenty pensioners singing litanies 
all day long. On the other, in the ci-devant 
Comte d'Artois' stables, is a regiment of cavahy, 
who trumpet every hour for something or 
other, or play upon flutes, and oftener sing and 
swear. But they are civil people and inoffensive, 
except when I am troubled with a headache. 
This place has all along been very moderate, and 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, ScC, 257 

110 blood has been shed here, notwithstanding 
the endeavours of that monster David. 

I dare say the Tesica* will go in her turn. At 
present, Spain and Austria support her, but when 
the old scarlet lady drops, it will be a bad day 
for little Januarius. 



Au Colomhier, July 24, 1797. 

I am writing from the house of Monsieur 
Cumpelzaimer, Perregaux's partner, with a name 
as soft as any of those in Duten's story, f where 
I came yesterday to meet Mademoiselle Perre- 
gaux and a party of friends. It is near Arpajon, 
an antique villa surrounded with moats, char- 
milles, and gardens. The little river Remarde 
runs by the edge of the garden, under shady 
bowers, very rural, and probably rheumatic. I 
crossed the country from Fontainbleau by Males- 

* Naples. The scarlet Lady, Rome. 

f A German gentleman complained to him of the harsh- 
ness of many Italian names, and said German ones were 
softer to pronounce, such as Schwartzenburg, &c. 

VOL. II. S 



258 LETTERS FROM THE 

herbes, to see Mereville Laborde's place. The 
house, in the revolution, had every bit of furni- 
ture taken away and sold. It is now magnifi- 
cently re-furnished. The place has great beau- 
ties. 

You will laugh to hear that part of our com- 
pany here consists of Monsieur and Madame Des- 
preaux ; the latter better known to you by the 
name of Mademoiselle Guimard.* They are 
both extremely agreeable, /aisa^z^ des couplets pour 
Voccadon, inventing games, acting proverbs, &c. 
They remind me of M. and Madame Texier at 
Brandenburgh House, being the same sort of per- 
sonages. 

Perregaux writes me word that I may perceive 
the revolution has not annihilated the gaiety of 
the country, and he is preparing a magnificent 
fete for his daughter, who will return without 
knowing anything of the matter. I shall, at the 
same time, go back to my moutons at Fontain- 
bleau, where I fancy I must stay quietly till the 
preliminaries of peace are signed, or not signed ; 
for I find my friend can do nothing for me, and 
* A famous dancer. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 259 

his attemiDt to serve me has miscarried. I must, 
therefore, endeavour to make myself as comforta- 
ble as I can incomplete apathy. 

I am utterly unable to serve Jerningham; 
my interference would injure his cause. Per- 
regaux thinks Charretie gave an impression of me 
at first as a dangerous man, which my cautious, 
exemplary conduct has not been able to do away. 
But he and Charretie hate each other ; so I do 
not give full credit to his suspicion. Barthelemy 
is of very little consequence, and probably not 
able to procure my return; indeed, by all 
accounts, the whole set are by the ears. 

I had a letter yesterday from Lord Malmes- 
bury's secretary, who says great attention had 
been paid them on the road and at Lille, where 
they are lodged at I'Hotel Bourbon. I know 
nothing of the negotiations at Lille, and it would 
be impossible to distinguish the truth from the 
different reports made me. 



August 7, 1797. 
I have just received a letter from Lord Malmes- 

s 2 



2G0 LETTERS FROM THE 

bury, who makes use of the following^ remarkable 
expressions : " I am sorry we are placed at such a 
distance from each other as to make our meetino- 
for the present very unlikely. I think it, however, 
most probable that you will soon return to 
Paris." 

I conclude you have got my letter with an ac- 
count of Eugenie's visit to the Directory. You 
will see that Barthelemy is not bad, but he is 
not strong. All his life he has file doux. I 
little dreamt I should ever become a suspicious 
person, who have passed my days en jasminant. 
I suppose I am kept away now for fear of my 
giving a lift to the negotiations, by intelli- 
gence, &c. 

I have had a letter from Mr. Vernon, to recom- 
mend the captain and crew of the Dolphin 
packet, in which he and Lord Berwick were 
taken. The French consul has liberated the 
passengers, and they are gone on to Rome, to 
fetch the Misses Hill. What a time to go to 
Rome, which is certainly on the eve of liberty ! 
This old lady dead, there will be no more, at least 
with power. What an age to live in ! 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 261 

Beiiincasa is delighted with tlie ruins of 
hierarchies, inquisitors, nobility, &c. The mar- 
gravine has sent me, by Madame Gaspari, a lock 
of her hair, in the clumsiest frame I ever saw, 
exactly like some fashionable knockers at doors : 
a flaming letter accompanied it. 

I now copy out the account of Eugenie's second 
visit, with her mother, to the Directory. 

*' Nous avous eu un gros quart d'heure de con- 
versation avec votre connaissance. II s'est ex- 
prime siir le compte de notre ami de Fontain- 
bleau avec la meme liberte et franchise ; ce n'est 
pas sa faute s'il ne vous prouve pas son amitie ; il 
I'a deja fait, mais on lui a campe au iiez, pour prin- 
cipale raison que votre fils aine avoit ete dans 
I'armee de Conde ! Jugez quelle platte calomnie ! 
II nous a demande si cela etait, et nous avons 
repondu, comnie vous I'imaginez bien, selon la 
verite. II nous conseilla d'aller tout de suite chez 
le nouveau ministre, pour dementir hautemeut la 
chose, et que cela suffiroit ; qu'ensuite au pre- 
mier moment favorable il reparlera de vous. 
' J'ai dit que je le connaissais,* dit-il^ ' que 



262 LETTERS FROM THE 

son caractere etoit celui du plus honnete homme, 
et qu'assureraent il faudroit qu'il fut bien change 
s'il savoit tromper,' &c. 'Enfin cela serait aTin- 
fini si je vous disais tout ce que nous nous 
sonimes mutuellement dit sur votre compte, et 
sur celui de votre famille. Maman le toucha au 
vif en lui disant qu'il y avoit de la durete d'en 
agir ainsi, tandis que c'etoit un petit dedommage- 
inent des pertes enormes que vous aviez faites aux 
Isles. II le sentit, et baissa la tete, les yeux 
presque mouilles. En veriteil vous aime. Dites 
lui,' continuat-il, ' qu'il ne se presse pas de re- 
tourner, car Ton m'assure qu'il a demande son 
rappel en Angleterre.' Nous I'assurames que 
c'etoit de toute faussete — ' qu'il ne s'impatiente 
pas,' dit-il — nous lui dimes que vous eliez d'une 
grande tranquillite, et que nous faisions a votre 
ins^u ces demarches d'amitie/' 

If the ex-bishop of Coutances is wise, he will 
not think of returning to Paris. It is too hot 
yet : your furze bush may easily take fire and 
burn to ashes, for the firemakers mismanage 
sadly. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES. &C. 263 

The Cisalpine or Milanese republic has united 
with the Cispadane or Bologna. That looks like 
business. I suppose we shall soon hear of the 
Ligurian, Paduan, and Venetian joining it, and 
then comes old Rome itself again, and perhaps 
Italy will once more be liberata dei Goti, I sus- 
pect the little man, (Napoleon,) whom you admire 
so much, has some such intentions. 

De Maulde's daughters have bestirred them- 
selves so much, that I think he will get some- 
thing in the diplomatic line. What a fine thing 
charlatanerie is I You need only say boldly you 
know a thing, and the world believes you ; your 
reputation is made. Pour lui, he is no more at- 
tached to republicanism than you are, except as 
far as he expects to get something from the Ja- 
cobins. 

To-day we walked out at six in the morning, 
per apricum et solem, to the river, got a boat, and 
let ourselves fall gently down it in all its wind- 
ings for about six miles. Then we crossed the 
forest eight miles, six of which were luckily in 
complete shade, and got home and made a de- 
lightful repast under our berceau in the garden, 
in the ivue far niente style. 



264 LETTERS FROM THE 

But you have forbid my making your mouth 
water by m}' descriptions, or saying anything 
about Fontainbleau. Yet how can I avoid talk- 
ing of my exile — my hermitage ? — Cicero would 
think and talk of nothing else but his. To be 
sure, I do not complain and blubber as he did, 
and I endeavour to make the most of " my most 
filthy bargain.'''^ 

You must have had our great thunder-storm 
the day after we had it. I had no notion it was 
going any further, or so far, or else I would have 
begged it to take a message for you. It played 
about us, singeing our oaks and apple trees, and 
illuminating our rooms so long, that I could not 
suppose there was any viaticum left for a jaunt 
across the sea. 

Barthelemy, it seems, told Eugene that Truguet, 
late minister of the marine, had always been an 
enemy of mine. I should not have suspected it, 
nor can I imagine why, unless it were from my 
being so anxious and troublesome in applying 
early in behalf of Sir Sidney, who, I am told, 
is very obnoxious to him — poco m'importa. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 265 



Aug. 20, 1797. 

One of the commissioners of exchange is 
come to inform me men and opinions are so 
much changed that I may now get Sir Sidney 
Smith released, upon our government ratifying 
the preliminary convention for a general ex- 
change. I am most happy to see my ideas and 
hopes realized, and shall not be surprised if I 
am recalled to Paris, as the business cannot go 
on otherwise, I wait for an answer from Eng- 
land. 

Eugenie writes me word she has seen Bar- 
thelemy again, who told her there was not the 
smallest complaint against me of any kind, but 
everything arose from le terns qui courre, which 
makes it dangerous moving any way. Perhaps 
Fontainbleau is safer soil ; for Paris grows 
red, and quivers like the soil of a hill near Naples. 
Lobsters of a sky colour abound, and stretch out 
their claws ; everybody wonders when they will 
pinch . 

I find M. de Maulde spoke well of me at the 
Directory, and said I was above soliciting my re- 



266 LETTERS FROM THE 

turn, and have so many resources within myself 
that I can never be ennuye. 

The emperor's peace is signed. Portugal has 
made a separate one, so we are left alone 

I will now read over and answer some of your 
questions. I wish the hedge continued as near 
the house as possible, to seclude our walk and 
gardens from intruders. Has the yew taken, that 
was planted over the wall ? The whins* here 
are very hard to rear, though I do not think the 
birch trees f overshadow them at all. There is a 
species of bloody whin '^ that is likely to spoil the 
whole plantation. In this season it is very much 
heated, and those that have thorns^ will over- 
power the rest : if so, the whole nursery will 
fail, and all be rooted out. 

The revolution has swept away the literati 
and the monuments. I have been to Moret, but 
do not know any means of giving information 
concerning kings and kings" children. || 

You will find both Colombier and Mereville 

* Republic. -}- Royalists. t Jacobin. ^ Troops. 

II A negress, daughter of Louis XIV. and his queen, was 
shut up at Moret. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 267 

in Cassini's maps. The former was a seat of 
Monsieur cle Gouvernet's. 

Mademoiselle Du Thes' Lees were Lit de re- 
pos, Lit de parade, and La fleur des Lis. She 
herself may have been Lie du peuple. 

The French expect an immense emigration 
from England at the peace, driven out by taxes 
and discontents, and tempted by the sale of na- 
tional property. 

How long did Dutens stay with you ? — I must 
say for the French, that they are infinitely less 
given to forget a friend, to pay him court or to 
neglect him on account of his " actions'" being 
rehausses or ahaissees, than our John Bulls. I 
have always observed that you may fascinate the 
most proud and sensible Englishman with a good 
dinner. 

You will not suppose old age is creeping upon 
me very fast, when I tell you that I walked this 
morning (being our idle day) to Melun and back 
again, near twenty miles, and I do not feel tired 
in the least. It is such pleasant walking, a hard 
sand or mossy turf, and there are such varieties 
of wood and rock. 



268 LETTERS FROM THE 

I have been entertained with reading a jour- 
ney in the Pyrenees, Bareges, Bagnieres, &c. 
It dwells rather too much upon lithology, which 
is quite the fashion now, and very tiresome it is. 
A man shall travel you fifty miles, and all you 
shall learn is, that for so many miles it is clay, so 
many schist, so many granitoid ; and then 
perhaps he has been happy enough to see a piece 
of a primitive rock or granite tumbled into a 
valley. But the description of a country where 
1 have passed so many happy hours is, with all 
its faults, extremely pleasing to me. I am glad 
that other people have been struck with what 
delighted me ; and though I laugh at their 
vanity at having climbed up a rock or a moun- 
tain, I read with satisfaction the panegyric of 
Campan and Gri])pe. 

I think one of our hobby-horses is not very 
far from being saddled and bridled. I mean 
that Greece seems likely soon to cast off the Ot- 
toman yoke, and resume something like liberty. 
I thought once that the Empress of Russia would 
deliver it ; but T now believe its liberty will 
come from France, a quarter from whence, Dieu 
salt, it was little to be expected ten years ago. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, 8ce. 269 

Aug. '28, 1797. 
I stumbled yesterday on the finest inland view 
I ever saw in my life — (you will say I am like 
the cat and the mouse in the fable.) We set off 
early to take a long walk into an unexplored 
country, and accordingly stretched through the 
forest till we reached the three leagues' stone. 
There we sat down to our breakfast of bread and 
a pear, basking in the sun. We then wandered 
on the banks of the Loire and the Canal de 
Briare, peeped into a grand chateau where na- 
ture did much, and art has undone everything. 
A large rocky stream runs through the woods 
and gardens, and the tasty owner has trained it 
up in a triangular pond and a moat round the 
house, and for its discharge has placed two hor- 
rid falling mills in the garden, at the edge of the 
stone head. We rambled up the high hills that 
run between the Seine and Loire, and return- 
ed to a full view of Moret, near an ancient 
mound, probably of Roman work. From thence 
the view was divine; — the distant hills of the 
Orleannois bounding the horizon, the Loire mean- 



270 LETTERS FROM THE 

dering like a snake through a long reach of 
meadows ; on each side gentle eminences and 
villages, with clumps of poplars ; and in a bold 
semicircle of hills the large chateau and park 
before mentioned. Then the Canal de Briare fall- 
ing into the natural bed of the Loire, which comes 
down from the numerous arches and mills at the 
gates of Moret, where it tumbles down several 
cascades, and reflects the large old castle and 
church, with the crumbling walls and turrets of 
this little fortified town, in the most beautiful 
manner. 

But I am ashamed at catching my seU jasmi- 
nant de cette force. Let us return to our mou- 
tons — at least to our hctes. Barthelemy has 
written me a note, hoping I do not suppose it his 
fault that I am still in these quarters. However, 
nothing seems to be said of my return from 
exile. 

The report is, that peace is made. It is said a 
telegraph has announced to the Directory that 
preliminaries are signed at Lille ; but Perregaux, 
who must know, writes word that everything 
there is dormant, and Mr. Elhs gone to England, 



COURTS OF PARIS. NAPLES, &C. 271 

not to return. The council has decided that all 
priests may re-enter France, and live unmolested. 

We have a great abundance of fruit, and make 
a glorious consumption of it, for I am grown 
like the king of Prussia, with some constantly 
upon the table. When I return home, I shall be 
obliged to send the children out for blackberries 
and bilberries. 

Tourine, upon hearing Barthelemy was with- 
out a wife, began immediately to work and build 
plans, and wrote to Pilgarlick to beg he would 
recommendoneof her fabrication to him; adding, 
" on fait ces choses la Men lestement aujourdlmi." 
You may imagine how Pill laughed ! 

I have written Benincasa an epitaph, on the 
apoplectic fit of the Serenissima.* I am afraid 
the Adriatic will soon be no better then one of 
the wicked, and forget her venerable husband. f 



Sept. 1797. 
M. informs me our ministers are displeased 

* The fall of Genoa. 

f Alluding to the Doge of Venice wedding the Adriatic. 



272 LETTERS FROM THE 

with me for having, at the positive and official 
request of the Directory, written to beg mercy 
might be extended to an Irishman, (Long,) cap- 
tain of a French privateer captured, and to be 
tried for his life, as by our law he has no chance of 
escaping conviction. This man has been twenty- 
five years established in France, has children, 
and served all last war against us ; for at that 
time the penal laws prevented Catholics being 
employed in the English service. We have par- 
doned fifty in this and the last war, under simi- 
lar circumstances ; nay, we have forgiven all 
the Americans, and were they not English sub- 
jects ? 

I made use of these arguments, and urged the 
absurdity of a law which must have more excep- 
tions than rules ; for what becomes of emigrants' 
children born in England, if ever they hereafter 
serve against us on returning to the country 
where their property lies ? 

I also mentioned that if Long suffered, it was 
probable retaliation might ensue. 

How could this statement offend ? But I will 
bear all very patiently, and if I am recalled, shall 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, ^C. 273 

return to my plough with the satisfaction of hav- 
ing done my duty. Perhaps, as the negotiations 
are begun, and the prisoners likely soon to be 
released from all parts of France, my presence 
here will become less necessary. 



Fontainehleau, Sept. 15, 1797. 

I have not written lately, for reasons whicli 
you will have learnt from the public papers.* 
Walter Boyd and Mr. Ker are packed off with 
every species of emigrants. Barthelemy is on 
his way to God knows where. I am extremely 
hurried by the number of letters my prisoners 
write to me, in dread of the cartel not being ra- 
tified, and their being left without pay or clothes. 

On the 4th, by a particular arrete, a commis- 
sioner was sent here to offer me the release of Sir 

* On the 4th of September a revolt had taken place, 
from a conspiracy for restoring royalty being found out, 
in consequence of which the Director Barthelemy , the 
Deputies Barbe Marbois, Tron^on, Ducoudray, Rarnel, 
Carnot, and others, were condemned to transportation to 
Cayenne. 

VOL. II. T 



274 LETTERS FROM THE 

Sidney Smith, if I would sign their proposals 
conditionally. This I did directly, as it was 
no binding engagement. However, the great 
events of that very day have probably engrossed 
the thoughts of government too much to get this 
matter finished, and I wait with impatience for 
further communication. The Admiralty has 
stopped the cartel, and forbidden the release of any 
more French prisoners, because it has received 
information, I know not from whom, that the 
British prisoners had been taken out of the cartel 
ships at Nantes, and that Major Hull and another 
officer, though provided with passports and their 
baggage on board, had been disembarked and 
thrown into close confinement. Now it happens 
that I this day received a letter from Major Hull, 
to inform me that he and his fellow officer, &c. had 
sailed some days before. I had, however, applied 
to the commissioners at Paris on the subject, and 
was assured there was not the slightest truth in 
the report. 



Septal, 1797. 
You will learn, before this letter reaches you, 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 275 

that I am recalled. JVo reason is stated, but I 
conclude I shall have further intelligence shortly. 
The ministers do not seem willing to avow their 
motives for displacing me. It is impossible that 
Nepean can be ignorant of the cause of my recall, 
of my enemies, or of the manner in which my 
business has been concluded. There are no steps 
taken for the acceptation of my successor, or 
even for the release of Sir Sidney. I am over- 
whelmed with letters. The exchange is in jeo- 
pardy, and our prisoners are sent up from Nantes 
to Angers. 

Eugenie writes that she has at length deter- 
mined to give her hand to Monsieur de la Ver- 
riere Montreuil, who has been solicitino; it for 
several 3'^ears. He is unfortunately upon crutches, 
but that is of no consequence to a French wife. 
He has a handsome fortune, is an excellent man, 
and his father was a premier president of some 
chambre des comptes or des aides. They are to 
keep house for her mother and her father too, if 
he chooses. Eugenie says he shall have his 
apartment, and a door of his own, and even his 
fat mistress, if he wishes it, en toiUe liberie! 

T 2 



276 LETTERS FROM THE 

These are pj'incipes a la Fran^aise in all their 
perfection. If I had staid and resided at Paris, 
I was to have had their principal floor, and to 
have kept house with them. 

Benincasa is at Paris, on his way to Italy, 
where he expects to be Director of Modena. 
Ciccaporee came over here to spend a day with 
me. 



Fontainebleau, Oct. 8, 1797. 

I did not expect I should still date from this 
place, but I am here in a state of suspense and 
uncertainty. Not a line from ministry or any- 
body. You may judge that I am amazingly tired 
of my situation, and nothing but my good health, 
the beauty of the weather, and purity of the at- 
mosphere, keep up my spirits. 

I have transmitted to the ministry a letter I 
have received from the Commission desEchanges : 
it is as follows : — 

" Le Directoire a pris un arrete, dont le pre- 
mier article laisse au Capitaine Smith la liberie 
de correspondre avec vous. Get officier jouira 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLf:S, kc. 277 

d'un cautionnement, des le moment que votre 
gouvernement aura ratifie le concordat. II sera 
definitivement renvoye en Angleterre aussitot la 
rentrees en France des 4,000 hommes, &c. Les 
evenemens du 18 Fructidor ont empeches que le 
Directoire se soit occupe de votre retour a Paris, 
ce qui pent vous convaincre et vous prouver que le 
gouvernement desire que nous puissions continuer 
avec vous I'operation des echanges. De-la son 
silence sur le compte de votre successeur ; il n'a 
pas voulu deliberer sur son admission, et il n'est 
pas question de lui dans I'arrete. Croyez moi que 
nous ferons tout ce qui dependra de nous, pour 
vous conserver ; nous le devons a la loyaute que 
vous nous avez toujours montre ; nous le devons 
a I'humanite, dont nous sommes charges de de- 
fendre les droits ; et nous sommes convaincus 
que personne ne peut mieux que vous nous 
aider dans cette tache glorieuse." 

I have since received the arrete about Sir S. 
Smith, who is now put on the footing of a pri- 
soner of war. 

It was very fortunate for me I was kept here. 



278 LETTERS FROM THE 

I might otherwise have been involved in the 
Barthelemy business, and perhaps walking about 
with Carnot. 

I learn that all the ci-devant nobles are to be 
banished till after the peace. 

How tired my short specimen has made me of 
ministers ! — though I like the kind of business 
exceedingly, and do it with pleasure and a light 
hand. I have got into the French style of di- 
plomacy so well, that I can now write a whole 
page, of which scarcely an expression is to be 
found in the Dictionnaire de I'Academie ! 

I have dined at different country-houses lately, 
and generally walked. Yesterday we had a long 
stretch, nearly thirteen miles, before dinner, and 
as much at night ; but it was like walking upon 
velvet. I wish I were playing so. 



Oc<.22, 1797. 
Still in the wood, as you see, and not a line 
from England ; consequently nothing altered in 
my most disagreeable position. Time steals on. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 279 

Am I then to complete my year in the ser- 
vice ? If so, I ought afterwards, like a pauper, 
to be entitled to a settlement. 

There is a greater dearth of matter for a let- 
ter than I ever experienced, for the style I live 
in is more eremitical than you can imagine. 
Yet the poorest hermit had a garden to cultivate, 
and I have nothing of the kind. 

Our weather is stormy, with an hour or two of 
sunshine every day, and the golden forest is in 
high picturesque beauty ; but, alas! it gives the; 
unpleasant feeling of desolation and winter. 1 
make long stretches across it every day, after 
working at my desk two or three hours. After 
dinner I go and sit sometimes with Lady Rodney 
and her two daughters ; but in general I remain 
by my fireside and read Voltaire's correspond- 
ence, which is very entertaining, though I should 
like it better if there were less of Voltaire in it. 

Mesdames d'Anglures and Talaru are coming 
to see me, but cannot move till the decree is 
fixed concerning the ex-nobles. The consterna- 
tion was general while the motion remained un- 
altered ; but the movers have withdrawn it, and 



280 LETTERS FROM THE 

proposed another, by which the ex-nobles will 
stand in the predicament of foreigners. 

I have a letter from Sir S. Smith, who thought 
I was gone, and wrote to me at the Admiralty, 
from whence it has been forwarded to me. In it 
he expresses himself in the highest terms of gra- 
titude and approbation. 

I long to have this delay and suspense put an 
end to, and look forward w-ith ambition and 
eagerness, though scarcely with hope, to spend- 
ing the remainder of my days in literary and 
other amusements, or employments, (call them 
wdiat you will,) on my own dunghill, ohlltus 
obliviscetidus ! No letters ! 

I am told by my correspondent at Calais that 
no vessel has appeared from Dover for a consi- 
derable time. Our winter is begun. 



Nov. 9. 1797. 

I have as yet no answer from the Directory, 
no news of my passport ! What can occasion 
tlie delav ? I think thev will not refuse me leave 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 281 

to stay a week at Paris ; but there is no knowing. 
I long much to get away at any rate : not that I 
expect any clear explanation or justice from our 
ministers. 

Sir Sidney has at last acknowledged to me 
tliat he has frequently written against me to his 
friends in England. He says he only complain- 
ed of my indifference ; and now that he has 
such proofs of my activity and attention to his 
interests, he apologises, and regrets having done 
so : but what good does his palinodie do me now, 
after he has been impressing Lord Grenville, &c. 
with hostile ideas against me ? All he can say 
would not make them change now, or recant and 
acknowledge an error. How will one thought- 
less word thus unintentionally destroy the wel- 
fare of another ! 

Probably other circumstances and calumnies 
have had their weight at home, and I dare say, 
some day, I shall be astonished at the baseness of 
those whom I do not think now of suspecting. 

Meanwhile, everything relative to the exchange 
of prisoners is going to the dogs. Animosity 
and pique are revived, and hostilities in that line 



282 LETTERS FROM THE 

are as warm as in the worst times. Our officers 
are deprived of their parole, and confined. Pro- 
bably the French are treated in the same manner. 
Pour dissiper nos ennuis, we went yesterday 
four leagues and more to Nemours, examined the 
works of the intended bridge, climbed up a high 
rock to view the country, ate our loaf of bread, 
and returned home to our dinner without stop- 
ping, untired and comfortable. I think, when 
I get to England, I must offer myself for a two- 
penny post or exciseman. 



Nov. 10, 1797. 
I have received Bourdon's letter, who says he 
deferred writing till he could learn from his col- 
leagues whether the Directory will or will not 
receive my successor ; and nothing is yet de- 
cided. He saj^s : " S'il est possible de finir avec 
Coles, nous le ferons ; mais je ne vous le cache 
point ; — les dispositions dans lesquelles il etait 
lorsqu'il a quitte la France, le ton de hauteur 
avec lequel il parlait de toutes nos institutions 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 283 

republicaines, la morgue qui se remarqiiait dans 
ses discours et dans ses actions, tout nie fait 
craindre qu'il n'apporte ici des preventions qui 
pourraient nous empecher de faire le bien." 



'■ [ Nov. 11, 1797. 
I had got so far when my man announced the 
arrival of Madame d'Angiures, Madame de Ta- 
laru, and Cesarine, who have taken a trip to see 
the hermit of the forest. Your ears must have 
tingled, as we talked for hours of you and yours. 
They send you a thousand embrassades. Lavie 
is gone to Switzerland. His daughter is at Paris, 
endeavouring to procure the definitive expunc- 
tion of her father and husband's names from 
the list of emigres, for, in fact, they never 
quitted France. But during tlie reign of terror, 
wherever you had an estate and happened not to 
reside upon it, the kind vassals or peasants set 
you down as emigrated. Many persons did not 
know this till the other day, but they were not 



284 LETTERS FROM THE 

the less obliged to quit the republic, as having 
incurred the penalties of emigration. 

Perregaux writes me word my passport is or- 
dered, and I am to be allowed to stay ten days 
in Paris, — so this disagreeable suspense will soon 
be at an end. Adieu for the present. 



Calais, Dec. A, 1797. 

I staid eight days at Paris. The reception I 
met with from the commission was very flatter- 
ing. Mr. M. will send you a French paper con- 
taining the speech the minister made me on my 
taking leave of him, which was very friendly 
and polite. I am informed that, on my account, 
the whole business of the general exchange is 
knocked on the head ; no further proposals will 
be made or listened to about Sir S. or the thou- 
sand prisoners, but all be looked upon as void, 
undone, or as non avenu. Yet all was in such a 
fair way. Peccato I 

Charretieis recalled, and Senovert, or Gallois, 



COURTS OF PARIS. NAPLES, &C. 285 

a friend of Talleyrand's, will succeed him. I 
carry over £4,000 for the French prisoners, and, 
what will interest you more, des roses pomponnes, 
carnations, &c,, safely packed 

Perregaux was all kindness and friendship. I 
shall never forget the cordiality and regard of all 
the commissioners of the exchange, nay, of all 
their clerks. They crowded round me when I 
arrived at Paris from Fontainebleau, and again 
when I came away. The universal testimonies 
of esteem I met with were quite overpowering. 

Talaru was at Paris unknown to me, but was 
recognised and obliged to fly to Spain. 

I hope in a few days to be in London, where 
I shall first exclusively occupy myself in bring- 
ing my political business to an explanation and 
an end ; finish with the board ; and then make 
the best of my w^ay home, and there remain 
quiet till the peace enables us to make a defini- 
tive arrangement with regard to tlie West In- 
dies, &;c. 



28G LETTERS FROM THE 

Dover, Dec. 1797. 

After a most boisterous passage I landed in a 
boat, for the ship could not make the harbour, 
and was obliged to go to the Downs ; so that I 
have not even a bundle with me. The vessel 
ought to come up this tide about eight in the 
evening, but the wind is strong and the weather 
foul. I have sent to Deal to desire the collector 
there will take out the boxes that contain my 
papers ; but I am half afraid the ship will be un- 
der way before my messenger arrives ; so my 
situation is very disagreeable and uncertain. 

But, at all events, I saved myself the horrors 
of a stormy night at sea, and have at least had a 
good night's rest. 

I will now mention some particulars of the last 
part of my stay in France. An official letter 
from the marine informed me that they had 
waited day after day for the ArreU du Directoire, 
which, by its answer to Mr. Dundas, was to re- 
move all uncertainty about the fate of the pri- 
soners, but had not received it, therefore begged 
I would not wait any longer, but hasten to con- 
vey the remittances to Charretie. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 287 

The same post brought me a long letter from 
Cottrau, full of the warmest expressions of friend- 
ship, and a promise that, at my request, General 
England should not be sent to prison by retalia- 
tion, even should there be a general order for it. 

A friend wrote to me from Paris that he was 
afraid the handsome things thought and said of 
me there me feroieiit du tort chez nous. Can I 
help being liked ? 

I found a Captain Davies, of Hull, at Calais, 
who had made his escape from Arras ; and as I 
happened to be well with the people there, the 
magistrates and commissioners made no opposi- 
tion to my putting him down as a servant of 
mine, and I have brought him over. 

The De Mauldes have suffered great losses by 
speculating in the Caisse d'Escomptes. 

Perregaux writes me word that his daughter 
is asked in marriage by a man past forty, and 
she d'accord. This is the youngest Barthelemy. 
It is an awkward circumstance at this time, when 
the elder brother is on his way to Cayenne. The 
rulers cannot like Perregaux's forming such a 
connexion.* 

* This marriage did not take place. 



288 LETTERS FROM THE 

London, May 7, 1798. 

All London was yesterday in a hubbub, on the 
sudden arrival of Sir Sidney Smith from Ports- 
mouth. He got off from Havre in a fishing-boat 
with Lieutenant AYrighr, and a little Frenchman 
of the army of Conde, who managed his escape. 
The above is the whole account he gave me, in a 
short interview I had with him soon after his 
arrival. But I have since learnt that an order 
being given by the Directory to remove them to 
another prison, a great mob had assembled to 
see them. When they came into the middle of 
it, friends properly placed caught hold of them, 
pulled them into the thickest of the crowd, and 
carried them off to a private house, where they 
lay concealed till night ; they were then con- 
veyed by cross-roads and bye-ways to Rouen 
and Havre, from the house of one royalist to 
another. 

As I have been suspecting for some time, by 
the accounts I have received from Paris, that his 
escape was preparing, I was not much surprised 
at it ; but I cannot yet take upon me to affirm 
whether the Directory connived at it, or who 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 289 

were the persons bribed ; for money must have 
been distributed. Sir S. said they were obliged 
to cut the Gordian knot. He received me with 
great cordialit}^ and many expressions of grati- 
tude. God knows what effect this will have 
abroad in the treatment of other prisoners. M. 
says there will now be no difficulty in ratifying 
my convention of February 1797, and releasing 
the parole prisoners. 

The way I learnt Sir Sidney's arrival was 
singular : I was asked by Madame d'O. to a 
little music in the morning, where Angelletti 
and Benelli were to sing. 1 found the rooms 
full of French dukes and duchesses, &c., and 
other emigres, waiting for the arrival of the Dukes 
de Bourbon and Berri, who came about three. 
As soon as they entered the room, the Due de 
Bourbon crossed it, and came up to me. " Je 
crois," said he, " que vous serez enchante de savoir 
que le Commodore Sidney Smith est arrice ; je 
viens de le voir — il s'est sauve du Temple par le 
moyen dun officier de Varmee de Conde, avec im 
faux ordre du Directoir^e.'' 

The Due de Berri is very little and stumpy, 

VOL. II. u 



290 LETTERS FROM THE 

with thick lips and rather ajigure ignoble — Dot 
so fat, but like Mr. Heneage. He stands first 
upon one leg, then on another. Like all his fa- 
mily, he is very unassuming and polite. The 
Frenchmen never sit down when lie is in the 
room. 

1 hear from authority that the captain of the 
Hercule is to be sent over immediately, in ex- 
change for Sir S. S. That looks like an escape 
by agreement, either settled, as some say, for three 
thousand pounds, or by Bergeret when last over. 
Some say he lay hid eight days at Rouen. Ge- 
neral England is confined in the citadel of Aire. 
I make no doubt Sir Sidney will explain my 
matters to his friends, and render me justice. I 
enclose a letter from him. 



TO H. SWINBURNE, ESQ. 

Portsmouth, Jtily 2(i, 1798. 

My dear Sir, 
On my arrival here I find the annexed let- 
ter from Lord Grenville, which I lose no time in 
transmitting to you. If there is any step you 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 291 

wish me to take to procure a satisfactory expla- 
nation from the other department, I beg you will 
command me. 

I beg you will be kind enough to tell me what 
I am in your debt for Spanish books and dis- 
bursements to John M'Cann, &c., in order that 
I may pay the same wherever you may direct. 

Accept my heartfelt acknowledgments for all 
the trouble you were so good as to take on my 
account, and believe me, 

My dear Sir, 
Your faithful, humble servant, 
W. Sidney Smith. 



{Enclosed in the above.) 

TO SIR SIDNEY SMITH, &C. &C. 

Dropmore, July 19, 1798. 
My dear Sir, 
I have just received your letter, enclosing- 
one from Mr. Swinburne to you on the subject 
of his conduct in France. As Mr. Swinburne 
was employed under the direction of two other 

u 2 



292 LETTERS FROM THE 

departments of the king's government, it does 
not belong to me to pronounce upon his con- 
duct. At the same time I have no difficult}' in 
saying, that I am not aware that there is the least 
ground for doubting the perfect rectitude of his 
intentions, though he does not appear to me to 
have always judged properly as to the means of 
giving effect to them. 

Believe me, dear Sir, 

Most truly and sincerely yours, 

Grenville. 



London, Jan. 3, 1801. 

I have seen Sir William Hamilton, and the 
famous Emma.* He is just the same in looks as 
when we left him at Naples. She is very large, 
with a handsome face and bad figure. Her hair is 
very black ; but she wears sometimes an auburn 
or a fair wig. 

They have told me many things of Naples 
which will interest you. Sir William has given 
me a list of all the people executed upon the re- 

* Lady Hamilton, 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 293 

turn of Cardinal Riifo and the king, notwith- 
standing the capitulation. I enclose you a copy 
of it, by which yon will see, as Sir \V, says, that 
almost every man of worth and learning is de- 
stroyed or fled from Naples. 

He showed me the English letter poor Cyrillo 
wrote to him for liis interference, but which 
Marshal Pignatelli took care should not be de- 
livered to him till after the unfortunate peti- 
tioner's execution. It is manly, and simply 
affecting. 

The Duke of Cassano was put to death, and 
his wife would have been so likewise, but the 
queen had her life saved, because it was known 
she hated her, and she thought her death would 
be ascribed to personal vindictiveness. The in- 
fant son of young Gensano was executed, and 
his father near dying of grief in consequence, 
but now he is thinking of marrying again. 

The Duke of Andria went to revolutionize his 
estates, and upon the people there refusing to 
plant the tree of liberty, he set fire to all the 
farms and villages. He has since been beheaded. 
Don Domenico Caraffa continued loyal. 



^ 



294 LETTERS FROM THE 

The king likes Palermo, and will probably 
never forgive Naples; nor can the queen, for they 
hooted her, calling out ^^ fuora la Messalina T 
and she met with no kindness, when she went to 
Vienna, from her daughter the empress, who 
soon got tired of her, and at last treated her 
quite ill. But the queen never had intended to 
remain there. She took her three daughters 
with her; Christina is to be married to the 
Due de Berri,* and she wishes to give the next 
to the Archduke Charles. 

Mr. Coutts tells me Sir W. lost a good deal 
of money at Palermo. You may remember he 
was always fond of play, and played like a child. 
His estate does not give him above 1,000/. a year; 
add to this a pension of 2,000/., and that will not 
keep up their present establishment, 

Paesiello is still at Naples, in disgrace for hav- 
ing composed a fine hymn for the tree of liberty, 
when the French were there. 

When Abbe Galiani was dying, nobody could 
get him to be penitent ; the queen therefore un- 
dertook it, and wrote him a long preaching let- 

•" Afterwards Queen of Sardinia. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &e. 295 

ter, entreating him to repass in his mind all the 
infidelity and peccati he had been guilty of 
throughout his life, for which he ought now to 
make amende honorable. He sent her a sealed 
answer, which on opening put her into the 
greatest rage, for it was her own letter, taken 
out of its envelope, and put into another which 
he had directed to herself, having altered two or 
three things in it. 

Lady H. showed me a very kind letter she had 
received from the queen, in which she says 
nothing can be more degraded than the house of 
Austria, and she does not know what to expect. 
Lady Hamilton talked much in praise of Harry's 
beauty, and said he was run after by all the 
ladies at Naples. She lamented his refusing to 
marry the Marchesa Moscate, wliich would have 
been a splendid match in point of fortune. 

L was much amused by a curious account she 
gave me of what passed when Madame d'Osmond 
arrived at Naples. The queen would not see her 
or any French, but Madame d'O. applied to Lady 
Hamilton for the purpose, who at last prevailed 
upon the queen to receive her. 



296 LETTERS FROM THE 

The queen was seated on a sofa on the same 
side as the door. Madame d'O. was dressed 
out like tlie mourning bride, and stepped in quite 
in a theatrical way ; as soon as she got a glimpse 
of the queen, she screamed out, and raised her 
liands, then threw herself back in a convulsion — 
(Lady H. acted it admirably for us) — then ap- 
proached, stared, and fell back again, sobbed and 
struggled in hysterics, crying out, " Quelle res- 
semblance T At last down she bounced on her 
knees at the queen's feet, and began an apos- 
trophe — " Adorable i^esseinblance cle mon incom- 
parable maitresse I de mon angelique amie /"' 

The queen was quite petrified, and reproached 
Lady Hamilton afterwards for having brought 
her such a tragedy queen. When the d'Os- 
monds went away, the queen complained that 
she had brought on her a terrible corvee, as she 
was pestered with letters from her, all lamenting 
her poverty, and begging relief, which the queen 
frequently gave. 

The Duke of Portland and I'Eveque de St. Pol 
do Leon will not suffer any priests to return to 
France, to any province where submission is re- 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES. &C. 297 

quired. They allow of their going to Bretagne, 
where none is exacted. The pope's legate, Spina, 
will soon settle all that matter. 

The Due d'Orleans asked kindly after you yes- 
terday. Madame de Genlis*s " Meres Rivales" 
is her own and Pamela's story dressed up d sa 
guise, and more absurd and immoral than any of 
her preceding works, but well written. 

There is a correspondence published of the 
late Duke and Louis Seize, Maria Antoinette, &c. 
in 1789. It is authentic. Speaking of our regency 
he says : " *S^ la regence sHablit, VAngleterre 
est a nous, pourvu que nous iiepargnons pas Var- 
gent" 

France is, I hear, perfectly quiet. Perregaux 
writes that his daughter is returned covered 
with laurels, having never left her husband.* 

By-the-bye, Miss Wesley dined some days ago 
in company with Mr. Nellemont at Dr. Gregory's, 
and he said to her that the foolishest thing minis- 
ters had ever done was to recall me, who had the 
art of being a favourite with the French govern- 

* Marmoiit, aftfrwurds Due de Raguse. 



298 LETTERS FROM THE 

ment without betraying my own, et toujours de 
la fumee pour toute nourriture ! 

It is said everywhere that Pitt has resigned on 
account of the king's refusing the Irish emanci- 
pation, and that the Speaker is prime minister. 
There arrived somebody about noon to-day at 
Lord Grenville's office, upon which the cabinet 
was assembled directly. I met " the late" Lord 
Chatham hurrying down about four o'clock, 
which was very expeditious for him. 

I am told there is a great jumble in the 
ministerial pot. The king taxes Pitt with dupli- 
city ; the Pittites complain of the Speaker, &c. 
Never was this or any other nation in such a 
hobble. France at liberty to turn her victorious 
arras towards us ; a northern confederacy ; our 
allies all cowed ; the Egyptian expedition pro- 
bably failed ; the ports of all the world shut 
against us ; a French fleet out against either 
Egypt or the West Indies; Ireland full of in- 
flammables ; — a weak administration : — this is 
only a partial sketch of our present situation. 

The East India Directors, it is said, are going 
to vote Mr. Dundas a pension of five thousand 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 299 

pounds ! But nothing ought to surprise us 
now. 

In the city they think that all this has been 
settled with Buonaparte, because he could not 
treat with Pitt, nor Pitt make the proper conces- 
sions he had scouted. So peace is now to be 
made, and then Pitt will resume his station ; and 
this ridiculous folly keeps the stocks up. 

I am uneasy at not hearing yet of Harry's 
arrival in Jamaica, though various persons con- 
versant with those seas laugh at my fears.* 



Feb. 2. 
Another Jamaica mail arrived this mornino-, 
which left the island on the 21st of December, 
at which time no account had been received of 
General Knox. They are very low at the 
Admiralty concerning it. I have been all 
the morning in the city, hunting for informa- 

* He went out as secretary and aide-de-camp to General 
Knox, commander-in-chief at Jamaica: the sliip was never 
more heard of, and must have foundered between Martinique 
and Jamaica. 



300 LETTERS FROM THE 

tion ; but tliere are so man}' contradictory re- 
ports and conjectures, that I returned just as I 
went, except feeling my spirits depressed by the 
fatigue. 

I assure you I keep nothing from you, nor 
palliate nor exaggerate ; spero contra spem. I do 
all I can to resist the weight of despondency, but 
indeed I am cruelly alarmed, and prepare my- 
self for the worst. I cannot pretend to bid you 
keep up your spirits, or hope or despond ; for I 
know not what to do or to say. My thoughts 
are on the rack about your health, and the 
improbability that your shattered nerves should 
be able to resist such a blow as this may prove 
Colonel Barry sits all day over the fire crying, 
and is angry if one suggests a hope. He quite 
kills me. 

I had got so far when Mr. Higgins came in, 
who declares upon his honour he would not buoy 
me up with false hopes ; but his opinion is not 
the least altered by the arrival of this packet, nor 
will it till we hear from Honduras. There is no- 
thing so common as ships driving past Jamaica, 
and being lost for months ; Admiral Parker was 
so for four months. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 301 

Feb. 6. 

Barry has quite got up his spirits, but I fancy 
from no reason but Higgins's persevering in his 
opinion, or perhaps from forcing himself out into 
the fresh air. How often have I admiied and 
felt the force of the Marquis of Ormond's excla- 
mation about his dead son ! Ours, if gone, is 
gone *' without a blot upon liis fair fame.'' How 
time runs on ! — every day sinks so much of my 
hopes, that I feel myself unmanned by every de- 
sponding expression or look of other people. 



Feb. 12. 
I write to save the last post. We had just 
dined when a letter came from Colonel Bany, 
enclosing one just received from the General, the 
date of which was the 25 th of October, from Mar- 
tinique. They had arrived, after an agreeable 
passage in a good ship, the day before. They 
were to re-embark that evening for Jamaica, where 
the General expected to be landed about the 1st of 
November. His letter is written in uncommon 
spirits. He says they were all well, but that he 



302 LETTERS FROM THE 

keeps Swinburne so busy he has no time to write, 
and therefore begs Barry to acquaint his family 
that he is safe and well. It was almost too much 
happiness to bear when these tidings came amidst 
all our anxiety, and we were quite overcome at 
such unusual ways of digestion. 



Feh.2\. 

I breakfasted yesterday with Mr. Pelham, 
whose post in the cabinet is not ascertained, as 
Lord Auckland encourages his son-in-law to stick 
to the war secretaryship, as a place, I suppose, 
where he himself can take an active post behind 
the curtain. Lord Pelham is to be Earl of 
Laughton in Sussex, near Lewes. The king 
keeps Sussex for one of his sons, and Lord Moira 
would set fire to his house were he to take the 
title of Hastings, of which Lord P. is the lord. 

Pelham has spoken to Nepean, and was to see 
Lord St. Vincent to-day, not having found him 
at home sooner. Nepean and Lord St. Vincent 
have had some conversation concerning me, but 
they cannot take the business under considera- 



COURTS OF PAKIS, NAPLES, &C. 303 

lion till matters of greater importance are set- 
tled. Nepean is most zealous and friendly. 

Higgins says there is a letter arrived to a Mr. 
Miller, announcing the safety of all the crew of 
the Babet. By that I should imagine they have 
been shipwrecked. I care not, so he is safe. 



Feb. 24. 

Nepean has just written to me in a style you 
must like: "lam a father, and can therefore 
participate in your feelings on the news of your 
son's safety ; long may he live ! I am sure he 
will be an honour to his name." 

The King is very ill ; it is reported he is mad, 
and that Willis attends him. We are in a strauQe 

o 

situation, half a ministry in, and half another 
out. Pitt and Dundas are said to be overwhelmed 
with debt. 



Feb. 25. 

It is certain that Dr. Willis is with the King. 



304 LETTERS FROM THE 

The Prince and Pitt were together, and the 
Prince said to Pitt, 

" You are still minister." 

To which the other replied, " I hope, if a re- 
gency is requisite, your Royal Highness and I 
shall agree better than the last time." 

" Oh !" said the Prince, " I see things now in 
a very different light from what I did then." 

So the ministry is now finely mottled. St. 
Vincent and Hawkesbury are installed, and per- 
haps Eldon— the rest not. I can scarce flatter 
myself Lord St. Vincent will return me my old 
situation, as Messrs. Pitt and Dundas remain. 



Feb. 27. 

The King's'fever is leaving him, and he is just 
now as he was when he began to mend twelve 
years ago. They say his illness was brought on 
by his taking a most extraordinary dose of 
James's powders of his own accord. If he does 
not make haste and recover, there will be a re- 
gency established upon the resolution entered 
into in 1789. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 305 

Nepean informs me, that Lord St. Vincent 
has had a second talk with him about me, and 
he assures me, upon his honour, that he did not 
know why I was recalled ; it was resolved upon 
at a council at which he did not assist. I am 
glad to keep the thing alive, and hope at least to 
have an opportunity of justifying myself. 

I met Lord Nelson at the Admiralty, but we 
had not time to say much to each other. 

Think of the emigres ! The Comte de Coigny 
had returned to Paris, and had got back great 
part of his property, and lived unmolested under 
Buonaparte's government. Meanwhile he was 
carrying on Monsieur and the Eveque d'Arras's 
plot to blow up the whole Opera-house, and then 
made only a partial explosion in the street. He 
had got away from France before it blew up. 



Feb. 28. 

This morning I hear the King's life is in dan- 
ger, and some talk of his not getting over tiie 
day ; but as these are not the most loyal of his 
subjects, I cannot trust to their intelligence. 

VOL. ir. X 



306 LETTERS FROM THE 

March 2, 1797. 

The King is recovering fast, both head and 
health, and there will of course be no motions 
made in the House about his situation. This may 
perhaps make some favourable turn with regard 
to me. 

Another month begun, and yet no satisfactory 
accounts of my dear son ! My hopes and fears 
are exactly what they were, and 1 wait in silence 
and sullen patience the accounts from Jamaica. 



March 4. 

How charming was the country this morning, 
the sun bursting upon one in every corner as I 
passed through the Hammersmith gardens ! I 
have done your commission with the Louiher- 
bourgs. If I am to write or go to them again, I 
will the first opportunity ; for I would at any 
time, and more now than ever, pay at your orders 
a visit to the Witch of Endor, ancient or modern, 
nimporte qui. 

1 have received letters from Padre Minasi and 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, Scc. 307 

Abbe Campbell. The latter says he never 
met with such a testa squaiata as our friend 
Minasi, who is stark-staring mad about politics. 

Campbell lives entirely with General Acton, 
and is going to Naples with the Prince Royal. 
He says, Sicily enjoys tranquillity and plenty. 
You had better not write to Minasi, for the ports 
of Naples and Sicily will soon be in the posses- 
sion of the French. 

When the latter were driven out of Italy by 
Suwarrow, Benincasa fled from Milan, where he 
was something, and lay hid for many months at 
a farm-house near Modena. He has probably 
returned before this, and may be a great man by 
this time. 

It is supposed that Buonaparte has agreed 
with Prussia to make the hereditary Prince of 
Orange first consul of the Batavian republic. 

Last night Madame M. had a musical party, 
which, from the small size of the room, and the 
black dress of the company, and the long piano- 
forte in the middle of the apartment, must have 
been the exact representation of the harlot's 
funeral in Hogarth. 

X 2 



308 LETTERS FROM THE 

Lady A. and Mr. W. are separated. He, the 
most knowing man of the town, marries a woman 
for her jointure, and finds himself immediately 
beset with a host of creditors to an enormous ex- 
tent. Her first husband carried her out of town, 
(to which she never returned in his lifetime,) 
upon Madame Le Brun sending him in a bill of 
five thousand pounds. 

This strong south-west wind might have blown 
some ships in from Jamaica. I dare not say 1 
long for their arrival. 



March 28. 
Every day takes away part of our hopes ; 
there are letters by the Jamaica mail, and ac- 
counts have been received from Honduras and 
other parts of the island. They have seen no- 
thino; of the unfortunate Babet ; so that little 
opening remains but the chances of capture, 
which I am afraid would have been known be- 
fore now. The Knox family and Colonel Barry 
give it up as a lost case. I write illegibly, for 
my eyes are dim, and every letter appears double. 



COURTS OF PARIS. NAPLES, &C. 309 

Can it be that the Almighty made my Harry 
so good, so perfect, and protected him through so 
many perils, to take him away so early ? I can- 
not believe it, till compelled by time and circum- 
stances. 1 will still hope, till hope itself shall 
turn to despair. 

Pray look among my papers for all his pre- 
cious letters, and put them carefully together. 
Happy is the farmer whose son learns to plough 
his land, and remains with him till his dying- 
day ! 

T. has written to you, but you want nobody's 
counsels or exhortations to keep up your fortitude 
under this severest of all trials. I think I shall 
be able to bear it, and not break down, though 
the mask I am obliged to put on, and the efforts 
I am forced to make, not to annoy those I see, 
are an amazing strain upon my heart. 



April 10. 
I must write, though I have nothing to say, 
except that your gentle, soothing letter has in 



310 LETTERS FROiNI THE 

some measure calmed my agitated mind. That 
you are resigned to the will of the Almighty I 
thank Him, and I will hope that time will teacli 
me to be patient and devout like you. 

If Pelham would but get into office, and give 
me something to do, it might be an occupation, 
if not an amusement, to me now. I could post 
the ledger of an apothecary or a haberdasher ; I 
could feed pigs, or dip a water-dog ; but I cannot 
sit down to my own business without pains in 
my head and eyes that overcome me in a mo- 
ment. I cannot draw, I cannot compose, or re- 
vise my old MSS., from physical as well as moral 
causeS; and I see no end to my misery. 

The papers inform you of all that passes, for I 
cannot bring myself to have the attention neces- 
sary for the perusal of a newspaper. 

I will write to Minasi, but his correspondence 
ceases to give me pleasure, for the subjects he 
treats of no longer interest me ; indeed, " man 
delights not me, nor woman either." The only 
idea I can form now, not of happiness but of 
quiet existence, is to sit by your side all the time 
my health and duties do not require absence. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 311 

Poor Charles Townley is gone ; but I know 

not what were his religious feelings in articulo 
mortis. 



April 16, 1797. 

I will transcribe for you what I remember 
of Lord Nelson's letters to Lady Hamilton, 
which she has just been reading to me and others, 
as they contain many curious details not in the 
gazette, and which one may like to refer to at a 
future period. At the same time it employs me, 
and may you also, for a little while, in something- 
less distressing to our thoughts than our own feel- 
ings. Though I do not mean to say it is a fri- 
volous subject, God knows it is a dreadful one 
to many a tender parent, wife or child. 

Lord Nelson writes several letters. The first 
gives an account of the negotiation with Colo- 
nel Strieker, about passing the castle of Cronen- 
bonrg. He puns upon the name. An aide-de- 
camp of the Crown Prince came on board — (ad- 
miral Parker writes a Danish jakanapes). He 



31 -J LKTTKRS FROM THE 

wrote something down, and finding the pen bad, 
threw it away, saying, " Admiral, if your can- 
nons are no better than your pens, we need not 
fear you much. To-morrow you will pass the 
Sound; w^e shall give you a warm reception. 
What are the names of the commanders ?" 

All the captains were then mentioned to him. 
He started at the name of Nelson, and exclaimed, 
" Ha ! Nelson is here ? then I suppose you 
mean to do something." 

The second letter gives an account of the 
passage of the Sound, which was accomplished 
without loss, as not a single shot struck the ships, 
though a tremendous firing was kept up from 
the Danish forts and batteries. 

The attack was very severe and bloody, as he 
had every floating battery and gun-boat to de- 
stroy or silence, before he could get at the men 
of war and the great batteries. The hereditary 
or Crown Prince was present, and very near 
being killed. 

After four hours' hard fighting in the good old 
way, our brave, skilful tars took, sunk, or burnt, 
eighteen sail of men-of-war, seven of the line. 



COUllTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &,C. 313 

III this letter there is much mention of liis 
trust in God and his protection, kc. He also 
inserts, very unaffectedly, that he hopes Sir 
William's pictures sold well. In the preceding 
letter he had sent his compliments to the Duke 
of Queensberry and Lord William Gordon, and 
begged the latter would not be making songs 
about them till they had done their work well. 

He laments the loss of his captains and the 
grief of their families. In the last letter he 
says the Danes immediately sent off a flag of 
truce, to desire an officer of rank might come 
ashore to treat with the Prince, or that a Danish 
nobleman might be allowed to go on board ; and 
that an armistice might be granted for a short 
time. 

Lord Nelson complied with great pleasure, for 
his sliip, the Elephant, was aground in a bad po- 
sition. He went on shore and conferred with 
the Prince, to whom he says he told more truths 
than he probably had ever heard in his life, or 
perhaps any sovereign ever heard. The prince 
asked him " why the British fleet had forced 
its way up the Baltic ?" He answered, " tocrusii 



314 LETTERS FROM THE 

and annihilate a confederacy formed against the 
dearest interests of England." He pointed out 
Bernsdorf (who was present) as the author of the 
combination, and answerable for all the blood 
which had been spilt that day, and added, that if 
they had not had beating enough, he was ready 
to return on board, and lay Copenhagen, its 
shipping and arsenal, in ashes. The Prince was 
exceedingly agitated and terrified. 

Unfortunately Lady H. was called away, and I 
did not hear the end of that letter. 

It is very singular that when Nelson landed, 
he was received with huzzas and shouts of 
triumph, and escorted to the palace amidst the 
acclamations of the admiring multitude. The 
capitulation of Copenhagen is expected hourly. 

The death of Paul I. occasions a variety of re- 
ports about its cause and manner. Those that 
will have it he was poisoned, say that the che- 
mists are now able to extract an essential oil out 
of peach stones, which, when rubbed upon the 
lips of a sleeping person, will prevent his ever 
waking again. For my part, I conclude he died 
of the maladie da pays, viz. strangling. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 315 

Woronzow* resumes his functions, and is ex- 
pected in town to-day. He was to have gone 
tliis very day to Calais, all his fortune in Russia 
being confiscated by Paul, to answer for the extra 
expense the Russian fleet had put the emperor 
to by remaining too long near England, — which, 
he said, was done by Woronzow's orders. 

Paul's death has just saved him, and probably 
the news of it gave him the same sort of feeling 
the prisoners at Paris experienced when apprized 
of that of Robespierre. It is very remarkable 
(as I learnt from him) that there is a lady or 
woman (I do not know who she is) who, when- 
ever she was employed to do anything for 
Woronzow, or to go and see him, was always 
followed by some lucky event. 

I had to-day a long conversation with some 
" down-yonders,"f who made me almost long to 
go to St. Vincent's. Such fine fish and fowls. 



* Father of the Countess of Pembroke, and a near rela- 
tive of the celebrated Princess Daschkaw, whose autobiogra- 
phy has just been given to the world under the editorship of 
Mr. Bradford. 

t West Indies. 



316 LETTERS FROM THE 

such beautiful woods, rocks, plants, and a crater 
of a volcano, &c. 

The French bishops, I hear, mean to resist the 
despotic order of the pope, which forces them to 
betray their flocks, renounce their allegiance, 
and empower Buonaparte to fill their sees with 
all sorts of mauvais sujets, without assigning 
any motive, or in any shape benefiting religion. 
They may add, and without holding out the least 
temporal advantage to them, for their places are 
already filled, no pension promised, much less se- 
cured. There — there's the rub ! I do not know 
who is in the I'ight — non nostrum est inter tantos. 

I met General Moore for the first time yester- 
day. He avoided all mention of his departed 
friends, — but I interpreted his looks. Pelham is 
everything that is kind and friendly. I love 
]jim as my incomparable son did. He has an 
excellent heart and a good head. 

I have seen in the Morning Herald a flaming 
advertisement of Ax well Park to be let. What 
would old Sir Thomas say, were he to pop his 
red face out of Wick ham churchyard ? Igno- 
rance of what passes on this mole-hill, or at least 



COURTS OF PARTS, NAPLES, &.C.. 317 

a total indifference about it, seems necessary to 
our quiet in the next world. Indeed, as these 
things can only affect our senses and passions, 
which depend, in part at least, on our material 
organs, there can be little doubt of the apathy 
of the trSpasses. 



June. 

In answer to your questions I rei)ly, that we 
are descended from the first writers in the Paston 
letters, I believe; for Sir William, to whom se- 
veral of them are addressed, had several sons. 
The eldest was the ancestor of the Earls of 
Yarmouth ; the fifth Sir Thomas was the source 
of the Pastons of Appleton and Horton in So- 
mersetshire, whose heiress (daughter of Ed- 
ward) married Sir Henry Bedingfield, my grand- 
father. 

The King is so well, that he is come to the 
Queen's house to assist at a court. 

Lord Nelson married a widow in the West 
Indies. He has but one arm ; he cut his own 
meat, as well as I can recollect ; but, for aught I 
know, Lady Hamilton may have helped him. 



318 LETTERS FROM THE 

I dined with the Loutherbourgs on Saturday ; 
they talk of taking- a house near Beverley, as 
they hear much of the pleasures and cheapness 
of that neighbourhood. In these days of taxation 
and severity, I conceive there is much less differ- 
ence than there used to be between one part of 
England and another. 

I was prevailed upon last evening to go to the 
opera. It was anything but an amusement to 
me. It is the place of all others to annoy me 
most; for it brings so many things to my recol- 
lection. It was there he was so happ}^ so amused, 
for you know he doted upon music ; and how 
pleased I felt in seeing him so fete, so agreeable. 
Oimd ! nothing on earth, I believe, now can 
afford me pleasure. It is impossible I can ever 
cherish a project or build a castle more ! 

I send you enclosed some verses Barry has 
brought, which a friend of his (Miss Trefusis) 
has written on the loss of the Babet. 

I am told nothing can exceed the King's ani- 
mosity against Pitt. 

The D'Osmonds are quite rejoiced at getting 
possession again of their daughter, with 1,500/. a 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 319 

year to spend, from De Boigiie.* Did I ever tell 
you, that in a journey to Winchester or Salisbury 
(I forget which) D'Osmond and his wife knelt 
down at the tomb of Osmund de Seez, Lord 
Chancellor and Bishop in 1072, as a i^elation ? 



LINES ON THE LOSS OF THE BABET. 
BY MISS TREFUSIS. 

Benevolent and brave ! bright Honour's cliild, 
Himself unerring, yet to others mild. 
Wise, yet unconscious of superior powers, 
Fair Science culled for him her choicest flowers, 
And playful Wit her proudest tribute brings, 
Gives all her graces, but withholds her stings. 
A form enriched with many a manly charm, 
A mind expansive, and a bosom warm. 
Large in direction, in performance bold, 
In courage youthful, in experience old ; 
With deep discernment, yet with graceful ease. 
He lent instruction, whilst he sought to please ; 

* General de Boigne, a Frenchman by birth, who first en- 
tered into the Russian service, and afterwards into that of the 
East India Company. He subsequently became general-in- 
chief of Scindiah's army. He amassed an immense fortune 
in India, and on his return to Europe married Mademoiselle 
D'Osmond. 



320 LETTERS FROM THE 

His public with his private virtues strove, 

Which our respect should claim, and which our love. 

Such once was Knox 1 the valiant, wise> and good, 

Now deeply buried in the silent flood ! 

More deeply buried in the British breast 

His treasured virtues lie. Oh ! noblest, best. 

Where, where was Albion's genius when her pride, 

The high-soul'd Knox, her boasted hero, died ! 

Nor for his loss alone Britannia mourns. 

While the proud deep a Swinburne's corpse inurns. 

With wit to charm, and virtues to endear, 

With manners gentle, and a heart sincere ; 

Youth of fair promise ! had thy rising day 

Equalled the lustre of the morning ray. 

By Knox distinguished, by his virtues led, 

With gathering honours clustering round thy head. 

How proudly had thy happy parents smiled. 

How gloried in the glories of their child ! 

Loved pair, adieu ! if great the public grief, 
Oh I what to secret sorrow yields relief! 
To private friendship, which would proudly boast 
Those heaven-born virtues now to friendship lost ; 
But that the swelling sigh, the bursting tear. 
Tells only that they were, and were most dear. 



Benham,* July 17. 

I took my destination on Wednesday to come 
to this place for a few days, in order to break the 

* The county residence of the Margrave of Anspach. 



COURTS OF PATHS, NAPLES, kc. 321 

uniformity of my life, and dissipate my gloom by 
varying the scene. I am afraid I have not suc- 
ceeded, nor am likely to succeed, in shaking off 
the black goddess or god, 1 know not which, 
from the crupper, where it is fixed like the old 
man in Sinbad's story. But, at all events, the 
jaunt will benefit my health, and kill that now 
bitter enemy of mine, Time. Alas ! till now 
he and I were on better terms. I remember 
when we were such friends, I was always sorry 
when he ran from me, and lamented that he 
fled so quick ! 

About eight o'clock I arrived with my port- 
manteau at the Gloucester coffee-house, and find- 
ing room in the Bath mail, put myself into it, 
and at four yesterday morning arrived at New- 
bury, where I slept on a greasy chair by the 
kitchen fire, surrounded by crickets and black 
beetles, till about seven, when I was wakened by 
a ploughboy burning cheese at the fire for his 
breakfast. I thought tlie strong smell that woke 
me proceeded from the burning of a house, or at 
least of my boots and clothes. 

VOL. II. y 



322 LETTEKS FROM THE 

About nine I arrived at this place, just as the 
Margrave was coming down to breakfast. 

Nothing can be more friendly and attentive 
than he is to me, except that he has not offered 
to lend me a horse. I understand he is inva- 
riabl}'^ niggardly in that respect ; so, as the sol- 
dier says in some farce in answer to his friend, 
who asks him if he does not travel in his own 
coach — " ]\Ioi et mon sergent nous profitons de 
la commodite du chemin, et nous voyageons h pied. 

This is a beautiful place, and an excellent 
new house, fit for any kind of gentleman. The 
architecture is like all that of Mr. Holland — 
that, in short, of an ignorant man, who takes bits 
out of his books, and talks humano capiti cervi- 
cem equinam. But, as it is plain, cela ne choque 
pas. It has nine windows in front, and a pro- 
jecting colonnade of four Ionic pillars in the cen- 
tre. You enter the south side by a large hall or 
billiard-room. The apartment on the right is 
the Margravine's, behind the principal staircase, 
and on the north front the Margrave's. There are 
a drawing-room, dining-room, and library — the 
bed-chambers excellent. 



COURTS OF PAUIS, NAPLES, &C. 323 

The park lies on each side of the house, occu- 
pying the face of tlie steep southern declivit}-, 
crowned with fine timber. There is a flower 
garden behind the house, and all the hill behind 
is covered with shrubs and noble wood. The 
view to the south toward the Hampshire downs 
is extremely rich, including a view of Lord Cra- 
ven's park. There is no account of the Mar- 
gravine having left Calais. Her famous ship 
was stranded and very near being lost, and was 
also nearly captured by some French fishing- 
boats. 

Mr. Merry was received on the quay at Calais 
by the commander of the troops, the commis- 
sioners, &c., and forwarded to Paris. I suppose 
they think he is going to negotiate, or rather to 
sign peace. 

Lord W. B. saw Robert Swinburne at Vienna,* 
about two months ago, very well, being able to 
use his arm enough to hold a bridle, and hoping 
to recover its use entirely. He had been offered 
a company in the guards, but preferred his pre- 
sent situation as more active service. 

* Afterwards commandant at Milan. 

Y 2 



324 LETTERS FROM THE 



Oct. 2, 1797. 

I send you poor Comte d'Alet's letter : this 
may be tinsel, but it is a little oil poured on the 
stormy sea of the mind, and soothes one for a 
moment. 

A gazette extraordinary informs us that the 
preliminaries of peace between Great Britain and 
the French republic were signed last night, by 
Lord Hawkesbury and Mr. Otto. Menou has 
accepted the capitulation for Alexandria. Upon 
this Buonaparte gave way, and sent over mo- 
derate terms. All I can guess is, that Malta 
will be free, either given back to the Order, or a 
republic. Tom will be upon the pave, but safe, 
which is now what I care most about. 



Nov. 3. 

Alas ! just so it blew this day twelvemonth. 
It is a perfect hurricane — tiles and chimneys 
tumbling about. 

I have received yours, in which you advise me 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 325 

to apply to my friend Dick — I suppose you must 
mean Nick ; for I declare I know of no Dick 
but Sir John, and I could not expect anything 
through him. 

Lord Pelham wrote me yesterday a most kind 
letter, to say he had had a long talk with Lord 
Hobart concerning me, who is very much dis- 
posed to serve me, but, until the colony is settled, 
he can give no absolute promise. It must there- 
fore trainer till after the definitive treaty. 

Mr. Jackson, who was to iiave gone ambassa- 
dor to Constantinople, but was prevented by 
Lord Grenville, (in order to favour Sir Sidney 
Smith's brother,) is going minister to Paris. I 
presume this Otto is to remain minister here ; and 
yet it seems odd that neither we nor Buonaparte 
should have something more showy to represent 
upon a peace. All the world is going down to 
the house, to hear Mr. Windham abuse the 
peace. Cm honol 1 doubt the Duke of Norfolk's 
going yet to claim the props of Cardinal 
Howard. 



•326 LETIERS FROM THE 



Nov. 17, 1801. 

I have had a very pleasant interview with 
Mr. Sullivan to-day. He advises me by all 
means to accept the vendue master's place at 
Trinidad, which he says must be good. I find 
that island, not being yet sufficiently inhabited, is 
not to be put on the footing of our other colonies. 

The comjiiission given to the governor makes 
him almost despotic ; he can choose, change, and 
act, without his council. There is to be no 
house of assembly ; the Catholic religion is to be 
the established one, and all Catholics are eligible 
to anything upon taking the Quebec oath. Go- 
vernment wishes to keep as near as possible to 
the Spanish establishment; and therefore, as there 
was a vendue master under the Spaniards, there 
will be one under us. 

Everybody agrees that purchases in Trinidad 
would answer ; for it is the finest soil in the 
world, has scarcely any mountain, and is as 
large as Jamaica. I hear it is a very healthy 
island, beautiful and curious in every respect, 
and of great extent, so tliat my soul and body 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 327 

will have elbow-room. The place allows of a 
deputy ; therefore I trust in a couple of years, or 
less, I may return to pass the remainder of my 
life in content at Hamsterley. 



* Flinched Eoads, Jan. 14, 1802. 

We sailed from Portsmouth on the last day of 
the year. Our frigate is a fast sailer, but rolls a 
great deal. We are above three hundred and 
eighty people on board, and sit down generally 
a numerous party. The general and I occupy 
the cabin, where our berths are rather gloomy, 
and not very quiet ; but I have never been ill, and 
find, as usual, the good effects of my education 
and travels, in not wanting any attendance or help, 
and being able to put up with inconvenience. 

The utmost attention is paid me, and all our 
society is good-humoured and civil ; but we 

* Mr. Swinburne had been appointed commissioner for the 
restoration of the Danish islands to the forces of that na- 
tion. He went to the West Indies on board the Danish 
frigate which conveyed General Waltershoft'and suite. 



328 LETTERS FROM THE 

cannot enter into their Danish conversation. 
There is plenty of eating and drinking, books, &c. 
We are just arrived in Madeira at the be- 
ginning of the rainy season, after nine months' 
drought, which threatened destruction to the 
island. To-day the thermometer is at 46, whicli 
makes it the coldest day any inhabitant of Ma- 
deira ever felt. The mountain tops are covered 
with snow. 



Jan. 15, 1802. 

I came on shore with General WaltershofF, 
and lodge at Mr. Murdoch's, a wealthy merchant. 
The beauties of the environs of Funchal resem- 
ble those of Naples and Ischia. The houses 
are all white ; above the town the villas are 
white also, and scattered about the declivity. 
The colour of the slope is now very brown, 
being almost all in vines. Orange groves every- 
where intersect both country and city. The whole 
mass is pumice stone of a dark purple hue, 
and black and red lava, and the beach is all j)uz- 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 329 

zolana. I could have fancied myself at Naples, 
et proprius ardere puteolos. 

We landed at some distance from the town, 
and had a long walk between gardens and vine- 
yards, supported as they are in the mountain 
sides of Capri and other Neapolitan places. The 
oranges we have tasted are very sweet. There are 
bananas, but the number of palm-trees is small. 
In a month this must be a paradise. General 
Clinton and our troops are here. 

As Madeira was quite uninhabited when dis- 
covered in 1411, and covered with woods, there 
is no accounting for its arborisation, as a volcano, 
but by supposing it the fragment of a continent, 
and that the eruptions were prior to that conti- 
nent being sunk by earthquakes. There is a com- 
plete crater on the mountain. 



Jan. 20, 180l>. 

I made the most of my time, whilst in Madeira, 

walking about and examining. I had not time 

to get up beyond the cultivated country, where 

nature displays more curiosities than she does 



330 LETTERS FROM THE 

below. I principally should have wished to see 
the variety of plants she produces spontaneously 
on those mountains, in a more southern latitude 
than Spain. As the island is volcanic, I was not 
surprised at finding a forest of chestnut trees 
above the'vineyards, as that wood rejoices in a 
fiery soil. 

The houses are whitened with lime brought 
from Porto Santo or Canary, and picturesquely 
scattered among the gardens, which makes the 
views resemble the slopes of Posilipo and Ischia ; 
only the roofs are tiled, and not flat: the tiles 
dark brown. 

Mr. Murdoch, at whose house we were enter- 
tained, is a man of great information, and had 
visits from the Portuguese governor and bishop. 
The people of Madeira are ugly ; most of them 
of that kind of Portuguese feature tliat consists 
of a broad face, snub nose, and wideraoutli, with 
good eyes and stout persons, like our friend 
Susa. * Very few have Jewish features, high 
foreheads, and aquiline noses. 

I saw two or three pretty young women. The 

* The late Count Funclial, 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 331 

men are tliiii and amazingly active — a laborious, 
hardy, patient race. Tlie dress of the peasant 
men is a small blue cap, blue jacket, white trou- 
sers, and gaiters or boots of ill-tanned goatskin, 
but oftener barefooted ; a long pole, with an 
arrow point in his hand, and a coat hanging 
over it. The women delight in gaudy colours, 
but all wear the blue bonnet, a white handker- 
chief over their heads, chin, and neck ; a short 
blue cloak, and boddice laced loose before. The 
town women wear men's round hats, and cloaks 
down to the ground. 

The roads up from the city are paved with 
sharp slippery stones, which are more painful to 
descend than to mount. People use small horses, 
which go up and down in a canter, with a pea- 
sant behind, who carries the traveller's portman- 
teau on his shoulder, beating them on. 

Mr. Murdoch resides at an elegant villa li 
r Italienne, up the mountain, where, at great ex- 
pense, he has laid out a beautiful garden, not 
only of the best productions of the island, but 
also of trees brought from all parts of the world, 
which all thrive there. Magnolias, as large as 



332 LETTERS FROM THE 

the oaks in our park ; weeping cedars from Goa; 
bread-fruit, and the Alexandrian laurel, which 
covers the walls ; palms of various sorts, and 
the whole tribe of agrumi mimosas, real acacias. 
The hedges are composed of pomegranate and 
myrtle, and the banks kept up by the aloe and 
opuntia. A kind of heath grows upon the moun- 
tains, like a tree several feet in circumference. I 
measured one eight feet round in the stem. 

There is a church, our Lady del Monte, con- 
spicuous over all the south side of Madeira, three 
miles above the city, to which I climbed with 
great fatigue. The view from it is fine. A cas- 
cade of water in the adjoining wood is a great 
ornament to a villa made a VAnglaise by Mr. 
Murray, our late consul, at the expense of twenty 
thousand pounds, which in spring must be a 
delicious situation. 

It does not seem that people live to a great age 
in Madeira ; consumptions and rheumatisms are 
common. The street of Funchal is narrow, no 
carriages being used, but little sledges for the 
wine, drawn by two little oxen. Water runs 
through the streets, which are all upon a 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &e. 333 

declivity, and this, with the help of the pigs, 
keeps them clean. 

The ladies are carried by two men in palan- 
quins, and few ever walk. Balconies and Vene- 
tian blinds give a pretty appearance to the upper 
stories. The ground floors are all warehouses. 

We are now running S. W. at an uncommon 
rate, with a refreshing breeze and a quiet sea ; we 
shall not enter into the trade- wind before we 
reach lat. 23«. 



South of the Tropic, Jan. 24, 1802, 

On the 21st, at midnight, we passed the tro- 
pic ; but as it is cloudy, we have not had it very 
hot yet. The thermometer stands at 72, and it 
is delightful ; but I see no beautiful skies, rising 
or setting suns. 

I am very tired of being locked up so long 
without seeing any of the varieties of nature, and 
in a ship full of company, where one can apply 
to nothing whatsoever. I long to be in the wilds 
of Trinidad ; for wild nature is the only thing I 



334 LETTEKS FROM THE 

can look to, as capable of creating a distraction in 
my mind from melancholy recollections. 

Among Mr. Murdoch's plants are the avogado 
pear, the mammee, sugar-cane, tragacautha, 
coffee, cork, and camphire trees. 

Our sailors have been this morning celebrating 
the passage of the tropic with a thousand mum- 
meries and rough jokes. 



Jan. 26, 1802. 
Yesterday was hot, but our sailors danced 
away till it was dark ; for we have a band of 
music on board, consisting of two trumpets, that 
summon us to dinner, two clarionets, and a 
drum. The soldiers sing in the evening an end- 
less German song, and the sailors impromptu in 
Danish, of which the wit is lost upon me. We 
have seen some flying-fish, but no tropical birds. 
Our deck is covered with an awning, which 
makes it very pleasant. 



Jan. 27, 1802. 
The thermometer is risen to 99. Everybody 
is beginning to take shower- baths of salt water. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &c. 335 

Feb. 4, 1802. 
Fort Royal, Martinique. 

We landed here yesterday morning. My old 
friend Sir Thomas Trigge was very happy to see 
me, and has taken us all into his house. We are 
a large party, and many of the officers I find 
here are old acquaintances. The weather is not 
disagreeably hot, though last night, at a ball 
where the general carried us, I confess I thought 
a little of the black hole at Calcutta. 

I have begun my operations, by restoring a 
Danish brig-of-war that was lying here. 

I behold with some pleasure the vast variety 
and novelty of cultivated nature around me ; 
but am better pleased with the sight of the ex- 
traordinarily beautiful wild flowers and shrubs. 
This is a most charming island, with woody 
mountains and varied scenery. 



Feb. 9, 1802. 
I have been two days at St. Pierre, where 
General Keppel entertained us. We had also a 



336 LETTERS FROM THE 

orand dinner at a merchant's house. We vvent 
and came back in canoes, a charming trip along 
the coast, which varies every minute. The rain 
prevented my riding into the picturesque envi- 
rons of St. Pierre, which are more precipitous 
and wilder than those of Fort Royal, though 
more cultivated. I have experienced no incon- 
venience from the climate. 



St. Croix, Feb. 14, 1802. 

I came here yesterday morning, but we found 
General Fuller had not prepared for his depar- 
ture ; and as the British troops are not with- 
drawn, General WaltershofF remains on board. 
By pressing and official threats I have bronglit 
the evacuation to be fixed for Tuesday morn- 
ing. 

The rejoicings seem to be universal on the re- 
turn of the Danish government, though the Eng- 
lish troops are much liked. I shall have a fine 
overhauling of accounts, and mucli roguery to 
detect and defeat, if half of what I hear l)e 
true. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, kc. 337 

We left Martinique on the lltli, had a view of 
Dominica, passed Guadaloupe in the night, and 
saw St. Kitts at a distance. St. Croix does not 
look well from the sea, for want of wood ; but 
when near, it is neat, and cultivated up to the 
tops of the hills. Christianstadt is a regular 
town, upon very uneven ground ; many of the 
houses with porticos before them, both on the 
ground floor and above. 

I don't know whether I mentioned to you the 
serpents of St. Lucia and of Martinique, which 
are dreadful, and many negroes are destroyed by 
them every year. 



Feb. 17. 

Our troops are embarked, and before this goes, 
the fort will be given up. There now blows the 
finest cool breeze I ever felt, with a clear sky, 
and the warmth is not more than a good sum- 
mer's day in England. 

I rise at the firing of the morning-gun at day- 
break, and ride out. 1 find it delicious, espe- 

VOL. II. z 



338 LETTERS FROM THE 

cially in passing hedges of strong-scented jessa- 
mine. There are lew gardens, the island being 
all cane or cotton ground. No trees are left but 
fruit-trees about the houses. 

The town is on hilly ground, and divided into 
regular squares. Each house has a few cocoa 
and palm trees behind it, which makes some- 
thing of a landscape ; but, after Martinique, one's 
taste is too refined. The great pity is, that in 
that island there is no botanizing, or penetrating 
into the woods and bushes, for fear of the snakes. 
At St. Lucia, an English officer and his family 
were sitting at breakfast, and his son, a boy of 
ten years old, ran with a servant through the 
orchard to fetch some fruit from a tree. He 
passed through a tuft of long grass, in which 
lay a serpent, that fastened so violently upon 
his leg, that it was with great difficulty shaken 
off and killed by the servant. In spite of all 
that could be done, the child died in a few 
hours. 

When the canes are cut in Martinique, the 
negroes cut round and round till a small clump 
is left in the centre, into which all the snakes 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 339 

have gradually retired ; this is surrounded by 
armed negroes, and set on fire. The snakes are 
burnt or killed ; but the immense extent of wood- 
land renders it impossible to destroy the breed 
of this horrid reptile. 

Though St. Croix, from its bareness and cul- 
tivation, is not a good field to search in for wild 
plants, still by the road-side, and in the hedges, 
is a great variety of pretty herbs and shrubs. 
Tlie waste part of the town is covered with the 
four-leaved cruciform plant, called four-o'clock.* 
I don't know its botanic name ; it is in all the 
hot-houses in England. I gathered to-day a 
handful of Jumbee beads. The colours of the 
weeds are brilliant, especially the blues, of which 
I found a beautiful water-plant. 

When the British troops departed, the interim 
between the hauling down our flags and raising 
the Danish ones (before which the Danish troops 
could not enter) was so long, that my reign as 
king of St. Croix was of a length to form an 
epoch in history ; for I stood with all the keys 
of the fortress, magazines, and treasure, &,c., in 

* A species of passaflora that shuts up about that hour. 

z 2 



340 LETTERS FROM THE 

my hands on the great staircase ; and as the 
Danes had no artillery, the business of my re- 
ceiving the royal salute was so long, that King 
Stephano or Trinculo might have done many 
acts of royalty. 

When General WaltershofF arrived by land 
from the other end of the island where he landed, 
he proceeded to the fort, where he received the 
principal people. Numbers of free negroes shook 
hands with him. We then marched in state to 
dinner, surrounded by hundreds of negro 
wenches singing and dancing. The effluvium 
was not very agreeable. One of these ladies 
(they all carried little red flags with a white 
cross) found it convenient to lean upon my 
shoulder, and stick her flag-staff into my collar. 
Danish colours were hung out in all parts of the 
town, which had a pretty effect. 

I had always heard there was no twilight in 
the tropics, but it is not the fact. The moonlight 
is delightful. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 341 

St. Thomas, Feb. 19. 

Upon the night we left St. Croix, we drove 
about fifteen miles through a fine road, amidst 
cane-fields and cocoa-tree avenues, to the west 
end of Frederickstadt, where ships of war lie in 
safety, and embarked in our frigate. We sailed 
in sight of many islands, and in six hours came 
to St. Thomas, a mountainous one. Its woods 
have been much destroyed : the harbour is fine, 
and being enclosed by lofty heights, all green 
or built upon, is extremely picturesque. This 
morning our troops here went on board, and the 
Danes took possession. 

We are going to St. John's, partly on horse- 
back, partly in a boat, and return at night. The 
business of restoring the island was performed 
pleasantly here, and we return to-morrow to St. 
Croix, to enter upon money transactions. Tlie 
inhabitants complain of cold. We have a round 
of fetes, and among others a French opera 
comique. 

I am not much delighted with the fruits here, 
and people have got so much into European 
manners and habits, that I have not yet had a 



342 LETTERS FROM THE 

single West Indian dish, or pepper-pot, &c., ex- 
cept " floating island." 

This is a fine port, but on account of the num- 
ber of bays, lagoons, and high impending moun- 
tains, a very unhealthy place in summer. 



St. Croix, March 18. 

Much of my intricate business is finished, and 
I hope to get away soon, as the frigate is to come 
down for me in a few days. I enjoy the best 
health and spirits, rise early, take moderate ex- 
ercise, and work hard till dinner, and play at 
cards in the evening. This is a most hospitable 
place, for the principal people live in the town, 
and I have not once dined at home. 

I find the weather delightful, though the wind 
is too boisterous ; but it tempers the air so well, 
that although the thermometer at the window 
marks 80, I do not feel greater warmth than in 
our moderate summer weather. In the evening- 
it is really cold, and a cloth coat very com- 
fortable. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 343 

The conversation here is generally of Toussaint 
Louverture and St. Domingo.* The last ac- 
counts from thence say, that General Leclerc 
has published a proclamation of Buonaparte to 
the inhabitants, full of equality and fraternity. 
Toussaint has retired into the Grandbois moun- 
tains, and probably much bloodshed will ensue. 
If pacific measures are adopted, there will 
scarcely be a probability of keeping the blacks 
in the other islands quiet. Here the planters 
perceive a growing spirit, and restless talk about 
liberty, in the young slaves. 

The estates here are fine things when the 
master resides upon them. I went the day be- 
fore yesterday to a planter's, and wandered about 
his fields and works. He has a fine grove of 
cocoa-trees close by the shore, and a house in 
the most beautiful marine situation. He tells 
me there is a famous cocoa-nut tree walk at 



* Toussaint Louverture. This extraordinary man, who 
rose from a common slave to the highest dignities in St. 
Domingo, was eventually inveigled, or rather carried off to 
France, and vvas thrown into prison, where he died in 1803, 
not without suspicion of having been poisoned. 



344 LETTERS FROM THE 

Trinidad twenty miles long, which is said to 
originate in a bark laden with nuts having been 
cast ashore. The nuts produced trees, the treos 
nuts, and so they were propagated along the 
shore. 



April 5. 
The Danes are very inveterate against the Eng- 
lish, and have put into prison some persons who 
accepted employment under our government. 
The inhabitants of the town of Fredericstadt 
gave a most sumptuous ball and supper on the 
2nd, in honour of the battle of Copenhagen, and 
the defeat of the English ! I did not attend it. 



Ma^ 5. 

The weather is much hotter, about eighty-six 
to ninety. I continue to enjoy good health. 
We occasionally make agreeable parties into the 
country, and went last week to dine in a wild, 
foresty situation by the sea-side, where the fish- 
ing-boats attended, and supplied us with good 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 345 

fish. I have had delightful rides in the east 
part of the island, which is more woody and 
mountainous. 

Here are some plantations built quite up in 
the nooks of the valleys, and call to mind the 
dear sites of Bagneres. The beauties of this 
climate, with respect to flowers, lie mostly in 
the creeping and climbing tribes. There are in 
the woodlands here large cream-coloured, yellow, 
red, purple, blue, and scarlet trumpet flowers 
and convolvoluses ; but I expect more variety in 
the less cultivated islands. 

I have met with numbers of the friends and 
acquaintances of our dear Harry and his good 
friend, which has been many a dagger to me. 
The most knowing seamen here think the un- 
fortunate Babet was wrecked upon the almost 
unknown Isles of Aves, to the southward of this 
place. 



Mat/ 13. 
Admiral Totty has sent down the Plover sloop 
of war. Captain Galway. The Aimable was de- 



346 LETTERS FROM THE 

tained by the mutiny at Dominica, and I have 
been a month idle here. We shall go early to- 
morrow to a country-house on the north side, 
among the mountains, where a large party is to 
meet us, and next morning breakfast on board 
the sloop at Fredericstadt, from whence we shall 
take our departure at noon. We stopped to dine 
and sup at St, Thomas's, next day dine with 
Mr. Georges at Tortola, then to St. Kitts. 



Tortola, May '20. 

I write to save the packet, lest anybody, or 
the papers, should inform you that the Plover 
sloop of war was wrecked the night before last 
on the Anegada reef. About four hours after- 
wards, I, with eight more, came off in a boat to 
procure assistance ; and after a most perilous 
row of three leagues, wet to the skin and 
fatigued, not knowing what land it was we saw, 
nor how to get over the reef, we met a boat that 
took us into North Sound, Virgin Gorda. Here 
I procured several small vessels, and have since 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 347 

heard that not only the lives of all are saved, 
but all the baggage and stores. 

We }3assed a hermit's life yesterday, having 
nothing but one empty room of a fisher- 
house for our accommodation, and nothing 
to eat. At last, by exertions, we procured some 
milk and cassada, and slept on the floor, our 
coats acting as bolsters. This morning we came 
here. 



May 22. 

I begin to think my life will make a good 
second edition of " Robinson Crusoe." I will 
now give you a more detailed account of my ad- 
ventures. On Friday last I quitted Christian- 
stadt, with a very large party, and slept at a 
gentleman's plantation in the Northside Moun- 
tains, which are beautifully romantic. Saturday 
we proceeded to Fredericstadt, where the Plover 
rode at anchor. General Waltershoff and Mr. 
Hagen met me to take leave, with every mark of 
respect, salutes from the fort, &c. 



348 LETTERS FROM THE 

We breakfasted on board, then landed for a 
prodigious grand dinner at a Mr. Foster's, where 
all the Danish and English captains met and 
caroused till night. 

We embarked at ten to set sail at six next 
morning, nobody but myself bestowing a thought 
upon the possibility of any danger ; but I have 
been taught so severe a lesson that it is never 
out of my mind ; and 1 calculated that our cap- 
tain and everybody on board were strangers to 
these seas, and not very well provided with good 
charts ; besides, the being in constant sight of 
land is apt to betray one into a dangerous secu- 
rity, and to make one steer by the eye rather 
than by good astronomical and nautical com- 
binations. 

We reached St. Thomas for dinner, and spent 
the day with some friends ashore. 

On Monday, by daybreak, we were under 
way, after weathering the east point of St. 
Croix and St. John's. About noon, Tuesday, 
we were close in with the south side of Virgin 
Gorda, or Spanish Town Island. 

After an immense deal of tacking, about a 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 349 

quarter before midnight, the ship struck upon a 
horse-shoe reef, which extends a vast way east 
from the island of Anegada, but shows no mark 
above water, whereby its shallow rocky bottom 
can be known. 

We were all awakened with the shock ; some 
thought it an earthquake. I felt very little 
emotion, but dressed myself and came on deck, 
where I saw little hope of saving the ship. The 
moon shone bright, the wind was moderate, and 
the sea calm. The round mountain of Spanish 
town, which I had sketched the preceding day, 
appeared to the south-west, at a great dis- 
tance. 

We cut away our mainmast, and threw our guns 
and ballast overboard. The ship remained im- 
movable, and the anchor carried out could not 
bring her off; but she made no water. 

We went off, as I told you, in the jolly-boat, 
to procure assistance, not knowing where to find 
inhabitants, or what rocks and shoals we might 
meet with ; but violent squalls came on, and we 
durst not hoist our sail. Drenched with rain, 
our men harassed, and our boat filling with 



350 LETTERS FROM THE 

water, I almost lost the hope of escaping our 
selves. 

However, after many hours' labour and slow 
progress, we reached land ; but an iron reef pre- 
vented our landing, and neither man, beast, nor 
habitation, appeared in sight. The sea ran 
mountains high, and the rain drowned us. 

Happily we saw a boat standing towards us, 
and making signals. It conducted us through a 
channel into North Sound, Spanish Town, a 
beautiful large bay crowned with high moun- 
tains, covered with cotton bushes, but very few 
houses. At one of these we landed, and as soon 
as possible sent off boats and sloops to the man- 
of-war. 

We luckily had brought some biscuits and 
rum, or else we should have starved, for the poor 
fishermen had nothing to offer us. We slept on 
the floor as well as we could, and our clothes 
dried in the sun on our backs,, but not one of us 
has suffered, though it is reckoned dangerous in 
this climate. 

About midnight a boat came from the ship, 
with baggage and some of the crew. Early next 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 351 

morning we saw from the hill that the ship was 
dismasted and unmoored ; but she seemed to be 
turned round, which was indeed the case. 

The inhabitants of Spanish Town are a fine 
tall, hardy race of men. They are supposed to 
be the descendants of the buccaneers, and have 
the reputation of being savage and lawless, and 
accustomed to subsist on the spoils of wrecks. 
They were very good-natured to ns, but their 
planters gave us neither assistance nor food. The 
blacks were eager to supply us. 

The number of inhabitants of this large island 
does not exceed a hundred, mostly collected at 
the west end, in a kind of town, with a church. 

We came to Tortola the day before yesterday, 
and in the evening a boat brought us word that 
the Plover was off the rocks, and moored in 
safety. I immediately sent off a large sloop with 
water and provisions, and the sailors we had 
brought hither. 

I have written to General Waltershoff for a 
Danish frigate to carry me up to St. Kitt's. I 
am at Mr. Georges', whose house is on the most 
beautiful bay in the world. 



352 LETTERS FROM THE 

May '2.1, at Sea. 

At noon, on the 24th, the Danish brig-of- 
war, Longax, arrived with Mr. Hagen, one of 
the commissioners, and at night we embarked. 
We have been becalmed ever since, and have 
made little way. 

Before I left Tortola, I rode over a large pro- 
portion of the island, which is very mountain- 
ous. In many parts the sugar plantations are 
carried up to the summit of the hills. Some of 
the best houses are also on the heights, and 
enjoy fine air and admirable prospects. Their 
gardens lie in some sheltered gully, where there 
are springs of water. The ways up are nar- 
row, rugged, and steep ; but the horses are 
so accustomed to them that no accident ever 
happens. 

The flowering shrubs are beautiful, and the 
large aloe, in full flower, is a noble plant. Tor- 
tola is a very beautiful island. Mr. Georges 
says he saves four thousand a year by residing 
on the spot. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 353 

Fort Royal, Martinique. 

I am just landed from the Danish brig. We 
went to Montsei-rat, where Mr. T. Meade, and 
the gentlemen of the island, received me with 
great hospitality. I like its locale wonderfully, 
especially Streatham, Meade's house, which is 
surrounded by romantic scenery, and as temperate 
as Madeira.* 



Port of Spain, Trinidad, July 9. 

As the town is hot, and reckoned not so un- 
wholesomeasthecountry, t have taken a small cot- 
tage consisting of a hall and three bed-chambers, 
on the crown of a hill, and a mile and a half from 
the town, across a plain half environed by woody 
mountains, and commanding the most beautiful 
prospect in the world, for the range of hills con- 
tinues on the left in a sweep behind the town, 
and ends in the sea. 

The plain, which is thus enclosed like a solid 
half moon by the hills and sea, exceeds my 
powers of description. It is as minutely and as 
* The intervening letters are missing. 

VOL. II. A A 



354 LETTERS FROM THE 

richly cultivated as the Brompton nurseries, 
and interspersed with all sorts of large timber 
trees. There are some habitations, barracks, 
&c., and one or two groves of tall trees that re- 
mind me of Chiswick and Ham. 

On the left the eye ranges over the town, and 
beyond it the immense forest which encircles the 
gulf, and is lost in the horizon. To the right it 
commands the shipping, and to the north the 
mountains which form the Bocas. 

I am told that the deer, wild fowl, parrots, 
and monkeys will come about the^house when all 
is quiet. The deer are small and very elegant. 
I have already seen a great variety of beautiful 
birds, one this morning, very small, of the 
brightest black and white plumage imaginable. 
In the town the streets are wide and paved. 



August 1. 
I have removed to the village of St. Juan, 
four miles from Port of Spain, eastward, close to 
the mountains, overlooking the small tract of 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 355 

cleared lands, and then the boundless woods of 
the Casony ; and, at many miles distance, the 
gentle, woody eminence towards Raporina. 

A fine river flows from the mountains, and 
waters the foot of the hill we live upon. The 
high road to St. Joseph crosses the little plain 
before us, between hedges of lime trees. The 
road up hill branches off in the middle of a lofty 
grove, the underwood of which is the cacao or 
chocolate tree. You then descend a pretty wind- 
ing road, cross the water, and ascend a gentle 
eminence, on the flat top of which the village of 
St. Juan is marked out in squares, so disposed 
that each house (made of mud, covered over 
with cane leaves) has a square round it for 
offices and a garden. 

The padre, or Spanish curate, inhabits a large 
house at the head of the green ; and behind all 
are his church and churchyard. Beyond rise lofty 
peaks, covered with the thickest woods. 

A French family still occupies our ground 
floor ; but when they are gone we shall be mag- 
nifique. But my stable is not yet built, so my 
two horses and mule dorment a la belle etoile. 

A A 2 



356 LETTERS FROM THE 

The mornings and evenings here are exactly 
like those of the finest summer in England. The 
verdure is brilliant, and the distant hills form a 
light blue ridge along the horizon. 

The fourteenth regiment being quartered at 
the city of St. Joseph enlivens our prospect, 
as some scarlet coat or other is always galloping 
along our lemon hedges, which hedges smell 
divinely when clipped, especially in the nights 
and mornings. 

The other day I wandered up a neighbouring 
opening in the mountains for a mile or two, 
crossing our river Aracagua, or some such name, 
and, winding through the forest, came to some 
plantations of sugar, coffee, and cotton. Tlie 
features of the view are gigantic, and sublimely 
beautiful. 

I have begun a Flora Trinidadensis, and have 
already got five flowers in it. There are more 
flowering shrubs here than low plants, but still 
great varieties of the latter. Everything is 
enormously dear here : nine guineas a month 
for our wooden house, three shillings for a hen, 
and so forth. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 357 

The flat land in view belongs to Governor 
Picton, who comes out every Monday, and we 
are going to dine tliere to-day. Trinidad is 
what I fancy Britain to have been before the 
Romans came ; — forests opened in strait lines, 
rivers choked with trees, and savages cultivating, 
in the small open spots of the woods, sufficient 
vegetables for their subsistence. The distant 
liills and the verdure look like the general face 
of England. 

When I go to the town I dine with the gover- 
nor, where I have a general invitation, or at one 
merchant's or another. We live a great deal 
upon soup of rice, fowl, beef, and eggs, and now 
and then pigeons from a dovecote. Fruit, ex- 
cept oranges, is not to be thought of; for although 
in this island the forests are full of fruit, indivi- 
duals raise none worth mentionino-. The avog:a- 
da pear is a fine thing, like marrow spread on 
bread. I have eaten one excellent pine apple ; 
the rest were not a mongout. The bread-fruit is a 
good kind of potato as to taste. When the sea- 
son grows dry I shall move about more, and be 
more entertaining. 



358 LETTERS FROM THE 

La ! what an ambassador Sir J. W. will make ! 
His ribbon and his wife will do very well, but 
the vovg is wanting, though perhaps he has 
enough for Alexander. 

The chaplain or rector of the church here, in 
conjunction with a commissary, gave a ball the 
other night, at a mulatto woman's tavern. I 
hear it was brilliant — all British, the governor 
at the head. 

Every day we have tremendous showers and 
very alarming lightning, which put an end for 
the present to my hobby-horsical excursions in 
quest of flowers, prospects, or natural history. 

1 have painted above thirty flowers, and now 
begin to find it difiicult to get new ones as the 
season advances. 



Sept. 19, 1802. 

The weather has been very hot, but not at my 
dear St. Juan's; no, there the cool breeze blows so 
hard, that I was obliged to shut my windows : at 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 359 

this moment it is troublesome, and I am sitting- 
dressed exactly as I should be at Hamsterle}^, 
and not a bit too warm, but am even obliged to 
take a glass of wine to cheer the cockles of my 
old heart. 

I am here perfectly well with all parties, and 
I am very sure that I am one of the most unex- 
ceptionable men that could be fixed upon for any 
office here — excuse my trumpeter being dead. 

There is no Chartreux leads a quieter life 
than I do, barring les j ours de fete. I read, walk, 
work, write till dark, and at eight I am in bed 
and hon soir. A sweet little bird, that warbles like 
a nightingale or a lark, roosts under our roof, that 
is directly over my mosquito net ; — and the sweet 
little fellow sings deliciously to me at the early 
dawn. 

There are many charming singing birds here. 
I was offered yesterday a cage of forty beautiful 
little parrots, the prettiest thing imaginable. I 
was tempted to buy them to send after a flock 
of their fathers and mothers, chattering and 
flying over their heads, but too high even to 
distinouish their colours. 



300 LETTERS FRcni THE 

The other day I weiir out to see the officers 
hunt deer. The animal is of a small size, and 
easilv run down bv the doiis of tlie countrv. 



Oct. 11. IS 02. 
So you liave quitted our dulcia arra ! and vonr 
removing to the jhuitus toto dlv'isos nire Bri- 
tannos. \vliilst I am gone to the Sitientcs AfroSy 

makes vou an exile like nivself. To C'o on with 
Meliba?us. I often say aloud aiul in my heart, 
'• En, unquam patrios longo post tempore tines, 
mea regna mirabor .'*'" mv trees, woods, and walks ! 
I am groun of late very melancholy, very ranz 
de vache."^ 

I have be^'U]! to make mv stables, but it does not 
interest me — vet I am in good iKaltli. but grown 
tiiin and looking old. But what does it signifv ? 
you will be glad enough to see the bag of boues 
return safe to vou. 

* •• Ah," s>aid an English lady of our acquaintance, who had 
travelled in Switzerland and heard ot' the disease which ab- 
sent Swiss call Dial iJii pai/s — " Ah. I pity those poor Swiss, 
thcv sufrbr so drcadfullv from that horrid mnz de rac/u.' 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. -'361 

I am surprised at Sir Walter Raleigh's name 
not being: o^iven to anv town, river, or street, in 
the island. In the Port of Spain we have streets 
called after kings and princes, as also after Dun- 
can, St. Vincent, Nelson, the late governor Cha- 
con ; — and why not Walter Raleigh ? as much 
superior a genius to those men as they are to the 
cabin boy ; for lie was great in more than one pro- 
fession. Get some general collection of voyages, 
and read the original narrative of the conquest 
of Trinidad. 

^^llat fools people are to flock here, as to 
EldoradO; witliout any previous inquiry ! There 
is quite a rage for possessions here. Mr. Lusli- 
ington at first sight gave £30,000 for an estate at 
Nagravine, which the owner acknowledged to 
me that lie had cleaned and spruced up, which 
had its effect : he gave £9,000 for it five years 
ago, and has taken away twenty of his best ne- 
groes. 

The rainy season continues dreadfully; 3'ester- 
day our river overflowed a vast tract of country, 

I am convinced there is danger in acquiring 
})ro])erty here for many years to come. I regret 



362 LETTERS FROM THE 

I did not find a spot nearer the town for my grant, 
because gardening is the most lucrative of all 
trades, when the carriage of fruit and vegetables 
to market does not sink the profits. I am told 
an acre of land produces £1,000 a year to Dr. 
O'Meara, who has a neat garden of a less size in 
the skirts of the town ; it may, however, not be so 
salubrious. 



Jan. 26, 1803. 

I am just returned from a three days' excur- 
sion to the heart of the island, in company with 
the new governor, Colonel and Mrs. Fullarton 
and suite. Our object was to attend the feast 
of St. Paul's Conversion, at Orima, the settle- 
ment of the Indians. We set out by daybreak, 
on Monday ; the Fullartons in their sociable, 
with yellow curtains and scarlet postilions ; 
then a landau ; and for fear of accidents, as we 
had reason to doubt the state of the roads, then 
three or four whiskies, and a large cavalcade of 
gentlemen and black grooms with General Pic- 
ton. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, Scc. 363 

We reviewed the 14th regimental St. Joseph's 
barracks, and breakfasted with the commanding 
officer's wife and other ladies. 

This ancient metropolis of Trinidad stands on a 
beautiful rising ground over the deep vale and 
winding stream of the same name. The moun- 
tains rise boldly behind, and a little over the 
town stands the venerable strong fortress wherein 
Sir Walter Raleigh surprised the Spanish go- 
vernor in his bed, after rowing up from the 
gulf with sixty men. 

This antique castle, the former depot of the 
archives, and from which all public acts were 
dated, is now in a perfect state of repair, and not 
the least dismantled, or worse than it was under 
the Gran' Rey Philip II. It is built of wooden 
frames and wattles, covered over with mud and 
lime ; the whole thatched with sea flags and 
rushes. The view from it is of a whole continent 
of wood, where orange-coloured blossoms tinge 
the forest with the colours of our fading beech 
in autumn. 

We proceeded to the extensive plain of Taca- 
rique, planted in canes, and dined at Mr. Nihel's, 
an airy situation on the first rise of the mountain. 



364 LETTERS FROM THE 

We sat down thirty to table. As I had engaged 
a bed some miles further at a gentleman's planta- 
tion, in order to be better accommodated, and to 
ease my horse for next day, I quitted the com- 
pany with my Sancho, and rode a couple of 
hours in the dark. 

The proprietor had given me as a direction 
the new English name of Springfield, a language 
which no one understands in that part of the 
island ; so all my inquiries of the negroes I met 
amounted to an assurance that there was no 
such place. I began to think I was to pass the 
night in the wilderness, which is not quite so 
wholesome as it is in La Mancha, — when I luckily 
recollected some one had told me this longed for 
abode was beyond the river Arouca on the right. 
I then remembered to have seen a path leading 
that way soon after I had crossed the water ; so 
I ventured into it, and soon came to a light, a 
negro line of houses, and a mansion where seve- 
ral people were moving about, and they came to 
meet me. 

I inquired if this was Springfield. " Ah, no!" 
nor did they ever hear of such a place." " Let 
tlie place be what it woukl,'" 1 said, " I would 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &c. 365 

go 110 further, aii*d must beg room for me and 
mine;" at tlie same time expressing my astonish- 
ment and vexation at the gentleman sending me 
such a wild goose chase. 

At the mention of his name, they exclaimed 
I was right, and this was the place. I here found 
two of my acquaintances upon the same round, 
and we made the best shift we could ; but our ge- 
nerous landlord had sent no provisions and no 
orders, except to let us in ; all we had was an 
egg a piece, a bottle of wine, one bed, (a ham- 
mock,) and a mattress on the floor, which we 
tossed up for, and slept very well. 

Next morning we resumed our journey, and 
preceded the great cavalcade ; it was three miles 
to Orima, the road broad and green, cut through 
the forest. Remark that none had ever been be- 
fore in that place, unless Columbus drove about 
in his curricle. When we arrived we found all 
the Indians in gala, going to high mass, and 
carrying in procession a statue of St. Paul, which 
from its beauty must have been one of their old 
pachacamaes new painted, and armed with sword 
and crown. 



366 LETTERS FROIM THE 

The village is large, has three or four streets, 
and a large square neatly built. On one side is 
the church, on the other the king's house and 
the market. 

The Indians seem an innocent peaceful people, 
quite submissive to the priest, fond of their long- 
hair, and whiter than the Spaniards. They re- 
ceived the governor with a flag, and a dull, 
hopping, or rather limping low dance to the 
sound of a drum, guitar and gourds full of peb- 
bles or seeds. 

We had an abundant breakfast at the curate's, 
and Colonel Fullarton gave a trunk full of gold 
trinkets for the women, a gift of government. 
Then their women danced for us, but so sheep- 
ishly and dully, that we were glad when it was 
over. 

In a street by themselves reside the widows, 
wives, and daughters of the black Charibs of St. 
Vincent's, who destroyed your estates there, and 
whose bones still lie blanching on the rocks of 
Becuya, where they were carried, or on the sands 
of Rattan. They are very much like negroes, and 
well behaved. They speak English and French. 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 367 

One called out, on seeing Mr. Gloster (the Attor 
ney-General) with us, " Dere Liar Gloster!" 

The Indians have their plots of cultivation scat- 
tered in the woods where the ground is good. I 
returned and slept about seven miles off at a 
friend's house, on a large estate purchased by a 
Frenchman ; the mansion-house of mud walls 
thatched, and divided into three rooms. 



Feb. 10, 1803. 

Tlie dry weather is set in, and the climate is 
charming. Light clear air, and coolness morn- 
ing and evening, and pure sun in the middle of 
the day ; but the change is trying to many con- 
stitutions. There are two men-of-war coming- 
through the Bocas, which are supposed to bring 
Commodore Hood, the third rex BrentfordicB — so 
we shall have more firing and feasting. 

Three days ago I rode up one of our largest 
valleys, to look at some estates on sale, and was out 
all the morning, walking among canes, coffee, and 
cocoa trees, looking at the Spaniards fishing in 



368 LETTERS FROM THE 

the river, and gathering flowers for my painting, 
without feeling more inconvenience than in a fine 
summer's morning in England. Every hour 
came a small sprinkling from a mountain cloud, 
which refreshed everything. 

We then adjourned with a couple of friends to 
my new stable at St. Juan's, not yet inhabited by 
Houhon3'ms, and made an excellent dinner on 
fowls boiled to a consomme in rice soup ; then 
sauntered to town with the setting sun. 

I saw one curious estate. A native of Grenada, 
a common peasant, possesses one side of the 
mountain, from the rivulet to the summit, con- 
taining one hundred acres ; he has cleared 
twenty-three, and covered fifteen of them with 
fine four-year-old canes. The rest is in pas- 
ture, and near the bottom are coffee plantations, 
&c. He has eight mules ; he is established in a 
good house, which he built, with his family, and 
a few negroes. We found them all making 



March 22, 1803. 
I took advantage of the fine weather to make 



COUiirS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 361) 

a tour with two gentlemen, Mr. Grant the col- 
lector, brother to the Master of the Rolls, and Mr. 
Macdonald, who has an estate in partnership 
with General Picton. We sailed early on board 
the Leviathan, Captain Brice, who brought out 
all my tilings, with a fair gentle breeze, that 
wafted us as on a fresh water lake along the coast 
of Trinidad. 

We breakfasted and dined on deck when we 
came to an anchor, enjoying the delicious cool 
air,and the view of every estate and improvement, 
marking the names on the map. At two we an- 
chored off the round hill of Naparisma, before 
the little village of Petitbourg, which is the ship- 
ping place of many fine estates, with which it 
communicates by means of a very fine road. 

After dinner we went into a boat, and entered 
the river Guaracaro, which empties itself through 
thickets of the mangrove-tree, the low boughs 
and roots of which are loaded with oysters, very 
delicate in taste. 

We rowed up a mile in a deep channel, daik- 
ened by huge trees, and at low water impa-sable, 

VOL. II. B B 



370 LETTERS FROM THE 

from those which have fallen into the water, anil 
which sometimes form a foot-brido^e over it. 

We ended our day's voyage at Union, Mr. 
Macdonald's estate, a pleasant thatched house 
and garden, embosomed in woods at the foot of 
gentle eminences, and exhibiting the promising- 
appearance of progressive improvement. 

llie next day I spent w^ith profit to my Flora. 
The day after, we embarked on our river, in a 
three-oared boat, with each our little bundle, and 
proceeded along the coast in a south-west direc- 
tion, under the Mount of Naparisma, which is 
like a little Vesuvius, wooded up to the summit, 
but has no volcanic productions. 

We skimmed part of a high insulated rock, 
where some ships were at anchor waiting for 
sugars, and along the shore, which is not un- 
like Devonshire, as the hills are cleared towards 
the sea, and backed by forests on a much larger 
scale. 

We landed at a gentleman's estate managed 
by an emigre of St. Domingo, who received us 
with great politeness, but iin jjeu trop a la 
Fran^aise ; for the dirt predominated. The great 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 371 

hall, which, like the cobbler's hall in the song, 
served for many purposes, was open and free to 
a vast variety of animals, visible and invisible, 
such as turkeys, geese, pigeons, flamingos, Mus- 
covy ducks, common ducks, hens, chickens, dogs, 
cats, black and yellow children, &c. : 

He is a pleasant sort of man, and his mulatto 
lady very polite, but he is le premier des gesticu- 
lateurs. 

We did not fare or lodge a la Sardanapale, but 
did well on the whole, and sallied forth next day 
oefore sunrise. 

We continued our voyage to the point of 
Brea, or the pitch lake, near the western extre- 
mity of the island. A line of breakers thunder- 
ing over a sand-bank stopped us at \o\y water, 
and our boat could not proceed ; so we stripped 
and waded ashore, in spite of sharks and alliga- 
tors, and walked two miles on a fine sandy beach, 
under the shade of the mangroves which line 
several miles of this low coast. 

We then climbed up a rock of solid pitch, and 
wandered to a kind of wild village of French 
mulatto people ; found a place to get a breakfast 

B B 2 



372 LETTERS FROM THE 

of eggs and coffee, among gardens of pine-apples 
and fruit trees, which had been the original ob- 
ject of the settlers before they thought of making 
sugar. 

The soil, or rather the floor, of all these planta- 
tions, paths, and house, is nothing but sheer 
pitch, not harder than a tub of common pitch left 
in the sun. 

This is quite a narrow peninsula, formed by a 
bituminous lava, flowing about two-thirds of a 
mile from a vast lake of the same materials, con- 
siderably elevated above the level of the sea. It 
is some miles in extent, surrounded by woods 
and estates of no great importance. The ground 
is hard everywhere, but intersected by cracks 
and ditches, full of clear cold water, all commu- 
nicating together ; and near the centre is 
a pool of about forty yards circumference, of 
deeper water, with islands of bushes upon it. It 
is the best entrance to the infernal reoions the 
poets could have had, and much more character- 
istic than the pretty Pisena or Cyane, near 83^- 
racuse, through which Pluto carried off" his wife. 

Near the lake I found two large rocks of the 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 37S 

same scoria as I have seen at Vesuvius, and that 
is the only volcanic substance I could see. We 
returned to the estate we had left iu the morn- 
ings, and there slept. Next day we went up the 
Separi, a fine navigable river, the banks of 
which are covered with woods as far as the em- 
barcadero of Mr. Hall, who has a noble estate, 
quite a territory. 

The Union was our next place of rest. We 
then procured horses and mules, (very indifferent 
ones,) and rode through woods, in tracks almost 
impracticable, into the high country, to a noble 
property of Brice, reckoned the best land in the 
island, and thence to the Indian Mission of the 
Savana, where we breakfasted with a Spanish 
curate, and saw his three hundred very neat ac- 
tive Indians : they live in a large village on a 
hill lofty and airy, in a woody pasture thirteen 
miles diameter. 

We came back by Petitbourg, through a most 
beautiful country, full of plantations of sugar and 
coffee. I never anywhere have seen so rich a 
tract of land. 

We came to Port of Spain yesterday, partly in 



374 LETTERS FROM TEIE 

a boat and partly in a sloop, where we passed 
the night very uncomfortably. There ends my 
pilgrimage, and Dieu mercil I never was better 
in my life. I think I ought to have made my 
tour more wonderful, and told you we landed 
one day at Otaheite, and another day at Buenos 
Ay res. 



March 25, 1803. 

Colonel Fullarton has asked me to go with him 
in a tour round the island, in a fine government 
schooner, on a part}^ of surveying and curiosity. 
We shall probably stretch out to St. Vincent's. 
Nothing would suit me better. We are to depart 
in a few days, 

I was amused at your fancying me low-spi- 
rited for want of H.'s company. Bah ! I was 
born of a convivial turn, and nobody can keep 
up the ball longer than I do in society, because 
long acquaintance with the world has created a 
kind of equanimity, which fortunately unthinking- 
people seldom acquire. I seldom join a party of 
a few days but the company are surprised at my 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 375 

flow of spirits, indifference, and self-denial ; 
much arising from an ironness of constitution 
hammered when red-hot by adversity. 

To return. H. is little resource to me. He 
is a clever, fidgeting, company-seeking man ; I 
can be very happy alone. 

All illnesses here are cured by lime and 
lemon-juice. I was in a cruel state, from the in- 
sects called les betes rouges ; my sleep interrupted, 
and the itching^ intolerable. At last I was ad- 
vised to rub the swelling with lime-juice. I did 
this, went to bed, and never heard any more of 
the business. I have frequently cured inflamma- 
tions from heat in the same manner. 

The quarrel between our governors is come to 
such a pitch, that yesterday Colonel Fullarton 
moved in the council an accusation against Ge- 
neral Plcton, for various illegal acts, condemna- 
tions, and executions, during his government, 
before the commissions came out, which must 
be sent hom.e ; and ministry have no choice; they 
must order Picton home for trial. 

Commodore Hood, who read the motion, took 
a warm part for Picton, and said it was a libel 



376 LETTERS FROM THE 

against government, and lie would not have read 
it had he known what it was — that he would 
write home to be relieved from his commission. 
To this Fullarton said, " As he pleased." 

If this brings an old house upon Picton's head, 
it is his own doing, and he may repent not fol- 
lowing my advice. When he received Lord 
Hobart's official letter, stating his appointment, 
he showed it to me. I said, that were I Alex- 
ander, I would write to his Majesty, that I was 
bred a soldier, had accepted the command of a 
conquered country, which I had governed a la 
militaire for five years ; that I knew nothing of 
civil affairs, therefore was a very improper man 
to act a secondary part, and begged leave to re- 
sign the commission. This would satisfy his 
enemies, and for ever lay all quarrels to sleep, 
and he would have a ribbon or a regiment. 

He acknowledged that I was right, but he had 
})rivate reasons for seeing them out, as they call 
it. I wish he may not say, O Cassandra ! 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 377 

Morch 31, 1803.* 

Our tour is put off, if not entirely, at least for 
some time, as things are very serious, and Colonel 
Fullarton cannot be absent. He was afraid of 
committing me by taking me with him ; but I 
told him I had already informed General Picton 
that I was going. 

The accusations against the latter are to be 
sent home. Commodore Hood says he will re- 
sign; so I suppose Colonel Fullarton will remain 
on the field of battle, unless a new governor is 
sent out. These fracas and quarrels are very 
unpleasant, although one has nothing to do with 
them. 

My house at St. Juan's is almost finished. I 
have made it very convenient, and it would hold 
you all very well, if you liked to come , but I 
have not here des ohjetsmajeurs to justify the ex- 
pense of bringing you, or endangering all your 
healths. To me, Trinidad is a delightful climate, 
and I can ride in its sun or sit on its waves with 
the same unconcern that I did near dear Istria 

* Mr. Swinburne died on the l.>t of April. 



378 LETTERS FROM THE 

and Capri ; — but that is no reason why it should 
be so for others. 

Were I a man to consult my own pleasures, I 
should undoubtedly be delighted to have you all 
here ; but mau}'^ reasons militate against the 
voyage. The expense is great ; the dangers of 
the passage something ; of the climate more. 

As to what you sa}^ of sincere friends — ivho 
has many ? Pleasant acquaintances — yes, one has 
plenty of those, that like the sweet buds of spring, 
enchant, enliven, and attract you, and then, with 
the first puff of adversity and frost of misfortune, 
drop off and fade before you. How few can 
boast of possessing the steady, hardy evergreens 
that stick by you through winter, and share the 
storm of ill fortune ! 

I am not one of those who think ill of human 
nature. I have lost friends, some perhaps by 
my own fault and want of punctuality ; but 
others have started up most unaccountably to re- 
place them. One must never be in a hurry to take 
umbrage, and look upon friends as ungrateful, 
treacherous, or inconstant. Give them time, they 
may come round — if they do not, let them go ! 



COURTS OF PARIS, NAPLES, &C. 379 

If you feel the want of my society, think how 
I must feel the want of yours. Nothing interests 
me, nothing but thoughts of distant home occupies 
my mind I I shall soon be like what we read of 
tlie Indians and Africans, that think when they 
die they shall be transported back to their na- 
tive groves. I wish I could think so. 

Adieu ! God bless you all ! 



ERRATA TO VOL. I. 

Page 16, line 16, /w dancers read dances. 

16, — 19, for dances read dancers. 

3") — 12, for Angloires read Anglures. 

44, — 23, for C'ostello read Crutelle. 

46, — 18, for Chastroses read Chartreuse. 

62, — 18, for Austh read Auch. 

96, — 22, for Carorina read Carolina. 

1113, — 27, ./'oj- Buonetiro rt'flrf Buen Retiro. 

124, — 28, for any read ugly. 

127, — 7, for Canialdola read Camaldoli. 

131, — 4, /or d'empero r«irf d'impero. 

132, — 5, for in contracto read in contralto. 
141, — 26, for Castela-mare read Castell' a mare. 
143, — 13,/o?- Solfaterra n'«rf Solfatara. 

149, — ll,/())- pascia ?'t'rt</ pascua. 

177, — 6, for Furaco read Fusaro. 

181, — 22, /or Genevese read Genoese. 

187, — 14,/or Ereta re-arf Eryx. 

193, — 17, for Persia i-ead Prezzia. 

22a, — 10,/or Rocca's read Rocca. 

232, — 9, for Jlontario read JMontorio. 

253, — 24, for Carcine read Cascine. 



ERRATA TO VOL. II. 



Page 80, line 5, note,//?- IV. rcarf XIV. 

146, — 2, note,./b)- noir j'fflrf noire. 

148, — 23, /or voyait rrar? voyai.s. 

149, — 1,. /wr reconnaitroit rcrtfi reconnaitrois. 
1/7, — 16,/or republicainerea<? republicain. 

194, — 4, /or eonstitutionnels r«(rf constitutionnelles. 

2/7, — 4, for rentres read rentree. 

315, — note, for Indies read Indians. 



INDEX. 



A BBEViLLE, town of, a public defaul- 
ter blows up the powder magazine 
at, i. 2 

Abingdon, Mrs., i. 391 

Academie, dictionnaire de 1', ii. 2/8 

Acton, general, of Naples, ii. 38 

Adelaide, madame, i. 12, 19 ; ii. 21 

Adige, the river, i. 326 — 328 

Adour,the river, near Bagneres, i. 54 

Agnano, lake, near Naples, i. 127 ; 
its exceeding beauty, 176, 206 

Agoult, M. d', ii. 55 

Agriculture, state of, in France, i. 2, 
53 ; in Naples, i. 144, 313 ; in Ca- 
labria, i. 171 ; corn of Sicily, i. 
192 ; in Italy, i. 259 ; in Lombar- 
dy, i. 305 

Agrigentum, ancient Roman temples 
at, i. 192 

Aiguebelle, site of, i. 275 

Aiguillon, due d', minister of Louis 
XV., i. 9 ; dinner at his hotel de- 
scribed, 13 

Aix-la Chapelle, visit to, i. 373 

Albani,the villa, i. 216 ; family, 216; 
cardinal, 217 

Albany, count of, descendant of the 
Stuarts, i. 253, 254 

, countess of, i. 253; ii. 18,41, 

51, 200 

Albert of Saxony, duke, i. 341, 346, 
351 

Alcano, district around, i. 1 90 

Alexander VII., cardinal Ottoboni, 
i, 212 

Alexandria, town of, near Genoa, i. 
266 

Alfieri, count, i. 253 ; ii. 51, 200 

Algiers, affairs of, i. 92 

Alhambra, palace of the, i. 66, 76. 
The governor Buccarelli, 67 

Allandale, mansion of Whitfield in, 
ii. 105 



Alicant, port and rock of, i. 74 
Alicata, and Terra Nova, in Sicily, i. 

193 
Almond trees, i. 193 
Alps, the, i. 267, 273, 275 
Alvimar, M. d', ii. 145, 152 
Alvinzi, field-marshal d', ii. 133 
Amalia, queen, of Naples, i. 179 
Amboise, town and castle of, i. 41 

the counts of, 37, 38 

cardinal George d', i. 38 

America, United States of, travellers 

from the, i. 61, 393, 394 ; com- 
merce of, 85 
Amphitheatres: — of Nismes, i. 121 ; 

of Aries, 121 
Anapus, river, i. 197 
Ancona, town and harbour of, i. 309 
Andalusia, rich plains of, i. 90 
Andelau, madame d', extempore 

verses hy, ii. 44 
Andria, duke of, beheaded, ii. 293 
Anglures, madade d', i. 7, 23, 30, 64 ; 

ii. 141,283 
Angouleme, town of, i. 45 
Anne of Austria, queen of Louis XII. 

ii. 61,62 
Anspach, margravine of, ii. 109, 323 
Antinous, statue of, i. 216 
Antiquities, collections of, i. 120 
Roman, in architecture, 

&c., i. 121, 122, 191, 192 
Antwerp, city and cathedral of, i. 

376 ; view from the steeple, 377 ; 

proposal for opening the port of, 

379 
Anville, Cannel d', ii. 185 
Appia, Via, i. 314 
Appii, Forum, i. 314 
Apple trees, of Normandy, i. 3; mode 

of priming them, 3 
Aquapendente, romantic vicinity of, 

i. 319 



382 



INDEX. 



Aquila, bishopric of, i. 163 

Arabian MSS. of tlie Escurial, i. 118 

Aranda, count d', his mission from 
Charles IV. to Versailles, i. 9 

Aranjuez, court and palace of, i. 100, 
103,113 

Arch,triumphal,near Avignon,i. 122 ; 
of Septimius Severus at Rome, 
212 ; Trajan's at Ancona, 310 

Architecture: — Moorish and Spanish, 
i. 66, 67, 93, 95, 118 ; ancient Ro- 
man buildings in Spain, i. 72 ; at 
Nismes, 121 ; at Avignon, 122 ; at 
Segesta, 191; at Agrigentum, 192 ; 
of Rome, 21 1—213, 221, 231 ; in 
Italy, 248, 250 

Arco, torrent in Piedmont, i. 275 

Aries, Roman antiquities at, i. 121 ; 
Eljsian fields, or cemetery of, 121 

Argj'le, John fourth duke of, i. 395 

Arno, vale of, i. 253 ; the river, 253, 
257 

Artois, count d', personal appearance 
of i. 10, 147 n.; ii. 12. Boar-hunt- 
ing by, ii. 10. — See Charles X. 

Artois, countess d', i. 1 1 ; ii. 12, 13 

Assisi, town and convent of, i. 249 

Asti, town of, i. 267 

Auersberg, prince, i. 343 

Auersberg, count, i. 366 

Augusta, town and bay, in Sicily, i. 1 97 

Augustus builds the temple of Jupi- 
ter Tonans, i. 221 

Austria, tour in, i. 365 ; costume in, 
367 

Auxerre, town of, i. 283 

Avernus, lake, i. 142 

Avignon, city of, i. 122 ; Roman an- 
tiquities near, 1 22 

Ajen, duke d',i. 15 n., 154 

Bacano, 1' Osteria di, i. 315 
Bagneres, town of, i. 53; mineral 

springs of, 55 ; antiquities of, 59. 

Society at, 61,1 15 
Baia, scenery of, near Naples, i. 139 
Bailly, mayor of Paris, ii. 82, 85 
Balbi, raadame de, ii. 12 
Ballet, the French, and dancers, i. 16 
Balloons, i. 392 
Bandon, lord, ii. 72 
Bankes, Mr., i. 142 
Barbezieuz, the property of the Le 

Tellier family, i. 45 
Barcelona, city of, i. 71 
Barras, the French Director, ii. 169, 

176 
Barri, countess du, mistress of Louis 

XV., i. 11 n., 15 — 19; her chateau 

of Lucionnes, 19 n. ; guillotined, 

20 n. ; anecdote of, 42 n, 225 ; visits 



Lucienne, ii. 22 ; her exile pre- 
flicted, 23,27 ; anecdotes of, 51 

Barri, William count du, i. 1 1 n. 

Barri, count John du, i. 1 1 n. 

Barre, colonel, ii. 300 ; letter of, 301 

Barthelemv, M., French Director, ii. 
1, 70, 2r9, 245,248,271 ; his exile 
withCarnot,Ramel, and others, 273 

Bastille, the, taken by the Parisians, 
ii. 83 ; made a timber-yard, 1 31 

Battoni, the celebrated painter, i. 215, 
219; his daughter Ruffina, 215 

Bavaria, appearance of the country, 
i. 367 ; costume, 367 

Beaujolais, count de, ii. 42, 43 

Beauveau, marechale de, ii. 22, 29, 
33, 63, 80, 133, 142,208,211, 212 

Bedford, John duke of, regent of 
France, i. 5 

Bedford, John fourth duke of, i. 286 

Bedingfield, Sir Henrv, ii. 317 

Bedingfield, Mr., i. 366 

Beech trees, i. 57, 301 

Beggars, of Italy, i. 171; of Flan- 
ders, 377 ; of Paris, ii. 130 

Belvoir Castle, i. 293 ; duke and 
duchess of Rutland, 293 ; beauty 
of the duchess, 294 

Benedict XIV, pope, i. 215, 239 

Benincasa, count, ii. 184, 261, 271 

Bergues, princess de, ii. 250 

Bermeja, Sierra, i. 79 

Bernis, cardinal de, anecdotes of, i. 
214, 228, 246 

Berri,dukede, personal description of, 
ii. 289 

Berwick, duke of, ii 34 

Bievre, M. de, a wit, ii. 59 

Bigorre, mountains, population and 
agriculture of, i. 56 

Biron, duke de, ii. 248, &c. ; called 
M. Gontaut, 249 

Biscari, prince of, 198; his gardens 
and museum, 198 

Biscay ,description of, i.l07;bayof,108 

Blois, description of the city of, i. 32 
the ancient castle of the counts of, 
33 ; Stephen, king of England, 34 
conseil superieur, at, 34 ; society 
at, 33 ; forest of Prnssec, 35, 36 
convent of Pont le Voye, 37 

Boar, wild, hunts, i. 140, 205 ; ii. 8, 10 

Bohemia, government of, i. 343 

Boigne, general de, ii. 319 n. 

Boisde Boulogne, at Paris, ii. 215,21 7 

Boisgelin, madame de, ii. 26 

Bolingbroke, lord, his chateau of La 
Source, during exile, i. 27 

Bolsena, lake of, i. 317 

Bonaparte, career of, ii. 13.3, 151,164, 
196, 207,211,218, 307 



INDEX. 



383 



Bonn, city of, i. 371 ; elector of Co- 
logne's palace at, 37 1 
Bordeaux, city of, i. 46 ; its com- 
merce, 46 ; parliament of, re-esta- 
blished by Louis XVI, 47 
Borgliese, prince, his pahice near the 
ponte Lamentana, i. iiS ; gala at 
the villa Borghese, 230; picture gal- 
lery of the Borghese palace, 3,230 
Boswell, Mr., his anecdotes of Dr. 

Johnson, i. 392 
Botany and Horticulture, remarks re- 
lating to, i. 58, 66, 73, 120, 129, 
155, 195, 225, 273, 274 ; ii. 240, 
252, 266, 356 
Botzen, town of the Tyrol, i. 326 
Boufflers, M. de, his defence of Ge- 
noa, i. 263 

, madame de, ii. 173, 199 

, chevalier de, ii. 29 

,comtesseAmeliede, ii. 186, 

199, 221 
Boulogne, visit to, ii. 119 
Bourbon, duke de, ii. 289 
Bourgoign's Essay on Spain, ii. 129 
Breteuil, baron de, ii. 11,59 ; his ad- 
ministration, 83 
Breze, Louis de, marechal de Nor- 

mandie, his genealogy, i. 5 n. 
Briare, canal de, ii. 269, 270 
Brienne, de, archbishop of Toulouse, 
his administration, ii. 21, 26 ; his 
dismissal, 40 
Brindini, his works at Naples, i. 160 
Brittany, affairs of, ii. 67 
Brixen, town of the Tyrol, i. 327 
Brookes 's club, ii. 76 
Broglie, marshal de, ii. 82 

, comte de, i. 45 

Bruce, IVIr , his ' Travels,' i. 94 
Bruges, town of, i. 381 
Brussels, city and court of, i. 374 ; 
Flemish and German nobles at,374 ; 
English society' at, 375 ; Picture 
by Rubens in the cathedral of St. 
Gudule, at, 375 
Brydone's ' Tour through Sicily,' i. 

187, 190 
Bull-fight, Spanish, i. 102 
Burgess, Mr., confessor of the Augus- 
tine nuns at Bruges, i. •''"'^l 
Burgos, cathedral of, i. 107 
Burgundy, vines and wine of, i. 282; 

history of the dukes of, 283 
Burke, Mr. Edmund, ii. 195, 198 
Burleigh, mansion of the earl of Exe- 
ter, i. 295 
Bur3% ruins of the chateau of, i. 40 
Butargo and Caviar, i. 195 
Butera, prince, i. 1 60 



Cadiz, city of, Mr. Henry Swinburne's 
letters from, i. 70, 79; hotels, thea- 
tres, and society at, 86 ; its superb 
bay, 87 
Cagliostro, count, ii'. I 
Calabria, account of, i. 157, 171, 189, 

200 
Calais, description of, ii. 116; em- 
bargo at, 223 
Calatagirone, Sicilian society at, i. 

193,194 
Calonne, M. de, his administration of 
finance, ii. 19 ; is exiled, 20, 23, 
27 
Cambaceres, [afterwards second con- 
sul,] ii. 195, 201, 202 
Cambray, approach to, through lines 

of Lombardy poplar, i. 298 
Campagna of Rome, i. 215,315 
Campan, madame, ii. 22, 38, 62, 268 ; 

her celebrated school, 151, 197 
Campania Felici, the, of Naples, i. 

144 
Campo, marquis del, ii. 140, 174 

Formio, peace of, ii. 236 

Canterbury, cathedral, and St. Angus- 
tin s monasterj^ at, ii. 69 
Cape of Good Hope. ii. 394 
Capri, excursion to the island of, i. 
149; its fine fruit, 149 ; Villa of 
Tiberius, in, 150 ; Carthusian con- 
vent, in, 150 ; caper bushes of, 
1.50 
Caraccioli, at Paris, ii. 224 
Cariati, prince, family of, i, 205 
Carmelachi, or r<izor-fish, i. 161 
Carnot, M., his talents and influence, 
ii. 167, 273 

, madame, ii. 208 

Carolina, la, detail of the colonies 
formed in the Sierra iVlorena at, 
&c., i. 96—99 
Caroline, queen of Ferdinand IV. of 
Naples, i. 124, 131—137, 145, 153 
—160, 206, 351 ; ii. 38, 294 ; her 
letter to Mrs. Swinburne, i. 227 
Carondelet, M., his marriage with 

Miss Plunket, ii. 40 
Carthagena, port of, i. 74 ; the gal- 
ley-slaves of, 74 ; the coat.t de- 
scribed, 75 
Caserta, palace and park of, at Na- 
ples, i. 124, 140; the boschetto 
cut, for constructing a small for- 
tress, 143 ; the peschiera at, 143 ; 
a conversazione given at, 207 
Cashiobury park, i. 385 
Casiri, Arabic librarian to Charles 

III,i. 118 
Cassano, duke of, his execution, ii. 
293 



384 



IXDKX. 



Casteldama, and the river Teverone, 
i. 222 

Castel Vetrano, wines of, i. 191; vale 
of, 191 

Castellana, duke of, i. 185 

Castillon, M. de, ii. 2.51 

Castries, marshal de, ii. 1 1 

, marquis de, ii. 35 

Catalonia, tour in, i. 71 

Catania, description of the city of, i. 
197 

Catherine de Medicis, interesting pre- 
diction recorded, ii. 61 

Catherine II, the empress, ii. 3, 28, 
47 

Cenis, Mont, i. 274 

Cervantes, i. 96, 104, 106 

Chad, Sir George, ii. 172 

Chalons, town of, i. 282 ; costume of 
the peasantry, 282 

Chamberlayn, Mr., anecdote of, i. 
294 

Chambery, visit to, i. 276 ; water- 
fall near, 276 ; Pass of La Grotta 
formed by Charles Emanuel of Sa- 
V03', 276 ; frontier of France at 
Les Echelles, near, 277 

Chambord, vale of, i. 40 ; castle of, 
40 

Chantilly, its gardens criticised, i. 287 

Charente, the river, i. 45 

Charles I. of Spain, [the emperor 
Charles V. i. 76, 110, 171, 172 

Charles III. king of Spain, i. 101, 
105, 113 ; the royal family de- 
scribed, 101 

Charles I V. of Spain, reign of, i. 9, 
101 

Charles X. of France, [count d'Ar- 
tois] described, i. 10 ; fond of hunt- 
ing the wild boar, ii. 10 ; and of 
gambling, 12, 20, 24. Anecdotes 
of theco'unt, 14, 40, 51, 68 

Charles of Lorraine, prince, i. 375, 
377 

Chartres, duke de, ii. 43 

Chatelherault, town of, i. 43 

Chatenay, count de, i. 167 

Chateau villard, M. de, his mansion 
at St. Brian, ii. 241 

Chatillon, duchess de, ii. 44 

Chaumont, town of, i. 38 ; castle of, 
38 

Chaupy, abbe, i. 222, 224 ; ii. 33 

Chenevix, Mr. ii. 189 

Chestnut trees, i. 1 98 

Chevalier, M., ii. 186, 199, 221 

Chevreuse, duchess de, ii. 65 

Chiclana, residences of merchants of 
Cadiz at, i. 83 

Chimaj-, madame de, ii. 42 



Choiseul, Etienne Franyois duke de, 
i. 229; his chateau of Chanteloup, 
42 ; ii, 46 ; his exile, i. 42 n. ; ii. 
47 

Christina, archduchess, and duke Al- 
bert of Saxony, i. 341, 346 

Churchill, the poet, i. 399 

Civita Castellana, i. 240 ; its castle, 
240 

Clagenfurth, capital of Carinthia, i. 
329 

Clair, river, near Poitiers, i. 44 

Clarke, general, i. 120 

Clary, countess de, i. 334, 338 

Clavering, George, anecdote of, ii. 
96, 104 

Mr. Thomas, ii. 103 

Clement, XL, cardinal Albani, i. 
217 

XIV., pope, i. 318 

Climate : of various provinces of 
Spain, i. 73, 81, 82 ; of Naples, i. 
127, 138. 151 ; of Rome, i. 224, 
229 ; of Piedmont, i. 272 

Clitumnus, sources of the river, i. 248 

Cobentzel, count, i. 353 

Coblentz, city of, i. 371 

Coigny, count de, his conspiracy in 
favour of Louis XVIII, ii. 305 

Collar, count, Hungarian vice-chan- 
cellor, i. 343 

CoUoredo, prince, i. 355 

Cologne, city of, i. 372 

Colonna family, the, i. 181 ; the 
constable Colonna presents the 
Neapolitan tribute of white horses 
to Pius VI., 217 

Commerce of Spain, i. 85 

Conflans, marquis de, ii. 65 

Conti, prince de, i. 20 

Convents, i. 28, 36, &c. ; at Naples, 
i. ] 26 ; at Lyons, 280 : at Verona, 
324 ; at Paris, ii. 161 ; of St. C^ r, 
256 

Copenhagen, Nelson at the battle of, 
ii. 311,&c. &c 

Cordova, city and mosque of, i. 94 

Correggio, paintings by, i. 305, 306, 
307, 349 

Cortona, town of, i. 252 

Cosenza, town of, i. 201 

Cosse, duchess de, ii. 14 

Cottrau, M., ii. 172 

Cowper, earl and countess, i. 254 

Craven, earl of, ii. 323 

Craufurd, Mr. Quint in, ii. 4 

Cronenburg, castle of, ii. 311 

Crosne, M. de, lieutenant de police, 
ii. 47 

Cubieres, M. de, ii. 182 

Cuma% ancient vestiges of, i. 142 



INDEX. 



385 



Cuma, town of, i. 308 
(Jyane, fountain near Syracuse, i. 1 97 
Cjrillo Dr., his drawings of Cala- 
bria, i. 1-18 
Czartorinski, prince, ii. 41 

Damien, Robert Francois, execution 

of, ii. 5 
Danish islands in the West Indies, 

&c. ii. 3-27 n., 336, 352 
Danube, river, i. 354, 365, 367 
Daschkovv,princess,autobiography of, 

ii. 28, 315 n. 
Dauphin, the, i. 10. See Louis XVI. 
David, French historical painter, ii. 

251 
Denis, St., abbey of, i. 7 ; its trea- 
sury, 7 
Denon, baron, ii. 32, 223 
Desfriches, M., landscape painter, i. 

30 
Devonshire, duke and duchess of, i. 

287 
Diano, plain of, described, i. 201 
Dieppe, port of, i. 3 ; high white 

cliffs of, 3 
Digentia, the brook, of Horace, i. 223 
Dijon, town of, i. 283 ; statue of 

Louis XIV. at, 283 ; bishop's 

palace at, 283 
Dillon, archbishop of Narbonne, ii. 

19,56,57 
Mr. Edward, i. 50 ; colonel 

in the French army, 302 

Mrs., i. 11 5 

Miss, (marquise d'Osmond,) 



i. 50, 155 

count Arthur, ii. 57 

abbe Arthur, ii. 57 

Mr. Robert, ii. 1 62, 206 



Dionysius of Syracuse, his dungeons 

or Ear^ i. 196 
Discus, game of the, i. 221 
Domenichino, paintings by, i. 322 
Dordogne, river, i. 45 
Dorset, .John Frederick, duke of, i. 

8, 10, 22 ; ii. 35 
Drumgold, Mrs., ii. 205 
Ducrest, Cesar Marquis, chancelier 

to the duke of Orleans, ii. 36, 43 
Duncan, sir William, and Lady 

Mary, i. 385 
Dupaty, M., ii. 7, 56 

madame, ii. 147 

Durand, abbe, ii. 191, 192 

Dutens, M. Louis, i. 182, 213; ii. 

267, &c, 

Eden, Mr., his mission to Versailles, 

ii. 7, 32, 73 
Edgcumbe, Mount, earl of, i. 295 
VOL. II. 



Ehrenbreitstein, flying bridge over 

the Rhine at, i. 371 
Elliot, Mr., English minister at Brus- 
sels, i. 296 
Elmslev, Mr., i. 386 
Emigres, French, ii. 279, 283, 305,<Scc. 
Englefield, sir Henry, ii. 3, 4 
English company at Paris, i. 22 ; ii. 

7, 35, 49 ; at Marseilles, i. 123 ; 

society at Naples, i. 124, 128, 139, 

141, 145, 204 ; society at Rome, i. 

210, 213, 218, 237 n. •, at Florence, 

i. 253 ; at Vienna, i. 332, 357 ; at 

Brussels, i. 375 
Ens, town of, i. 365 
Entelles, M. des, his translation of 

Milton, ii. 169 
Entraigues, count d', ii. 20, 51 
Eon, chevalier d', i. 387—389 
Errington, Mr., i. 289 
Escurial, palace of the, i. 104 ; elegy 

written in the royal vault of, 109; 

MSS. of the library of, 118 
Esparbes, madame d', ii. 249 n. 
Esterhazy, princess, i. 333 
Etna, mount, i. 192, 193 ; snows of, 

198; chestnut trees of, 198; the 

Centi Cavalli, 198 
Eu, in Normandy, lofty hill near, i. 3 

Farren, Miss, i. 391 

Fayette, marquis de la, career of the, 
ii. 20, 85, 89 

Ferdinand IV., king of Naples and 
Sicily, i. 124, 131, 151, 158; his 
character, i. 134, 177 ; fond of 
shooting and hunting, i. 140, 205 ; 
his manners, i. 147 ; lurther allu- 
sions to, ii. 294 

Ferrieres, mademoiselle de, ii. 241 

Fiesole, villa at, i. 254 

Figs of Italy, i. 156,172 

Filberts of Naples, i. 1 56 

Fiorito, the Col, nearTolentino,i. 31 1 

Fitzherbert, Mrs., i. 309, 396 

Mr., minister at Brussels, 

i. 374 

Flanders, tour in, i. 297, &c. ; revo- 
lution in Brabant, i. 358 

Fleury, cardinal de, i. 228 

Florence, English society at, i. 253, 
254 ; cabinet of medals, 254 ; re- 
visited, 321 

Fogliani, viceroy of Sicily, i. 186 

Foix, M. de St., i. 174 n., 387 

Foligno, town and vicinity of, de- 
scribed, i. 248 

Fontainebleau, palace of, described, i. 

224 ; ii. 234, 256 ; the gallery of 

stags, i. 284 ; death of Monal- 

deschi at, 285 ; the chapel, 285 ; 

C C 



386 



INDEX. 



tapestries after Le Brun's battles of 
Alexander, 285 ; council room at, 
286 ; forest of, 286, 302 ; hunting 
the boat at, ii. 8 ; theatre at, 9 

Forcalquier, monsieur de, anecdote, 
i. 13,14 

■ madame de, i. 1 3 

Fouquet, M., disgraced by Louis 
XIV., i. 174 n. 

Fox, right hon. C. J., ii. 77, 78 

Francavilla, prince, i. 131, 143, 179; 
his stud, 144 ; his villa in Ischia, 
155 

Francavilla, princess, i. 125, 141 

France, journeys through, i. 1 — 64, 
104—124, 279—287, 297—304, 
383 n. ; ii. 5—68, 116, &c. ; agri- 
culture of, 2, 45, 53, 56 ; dispute 
of Louis XV. with the parliaments, 
42 n., 47 ; state of the finances of, 
under Necker and Calonne, ii, 19 
— 21 •, parliaments and courts re- 
fractory, 25, 26, 53 ; manners and 
customs in, 13, 29, 41 •, disputes 
and alarms antecedent to the 
French Revolution, 53, &c. ; taxes, 
23, 24, 54 n. •, the Etats Generaux 
convoked, 79 ; double representa- 
tion of, 81 ; progress of the revolu- 
tion, 83, 87, 89, 109, 245 ; the di- 
rectory, and missions of lord 
Malmesbury and Mr. Swinburne 
to, 121, 155, 175, 193, 227; ex- 
pedition to Egypt defeated, 324 ; 
peace of Amiens, 324 

Frankfort, city and fortifications of, 
i. 370 

Frederic II., anecdotes of, i. 347 n. ; 
ii. 27 

French diplomatic language, ii. 278 

Fresco paintings, i. 258 

Fronsac, duke de, anecdote of the, ii. 
13 

Furaco, lake, wild-fowl shooting of, i. 
177 

Gabriel, don, infant of Spain, i. 101, 

103 
Galiani, the abbe, at Naples, i. 155, 

158, 166, 173, 180, 238 ; ii. 294 ; 

his anecdotes, ii. 170 
Gall, major, ii. 118, 125,145,146, 

162,172,213 
Galway, Mr. Harry, i. 52 
Gaeta, Mola da, i. 245, 246 
Gambling, anecdotes relative to card- 
playing, &c., i. 22, 128, 169, 373 ; 

ii. 12. 49 
Garigliano, ferry of the, near the 

ruins of Afinturnm, i. 245 
Garonne, river, i. 46 



Garrick, David, anecdotes of, i. 397 

Mrs., i. 396 

Gascoigne, sir Thomas, i. 52, 62, 68, 
116, 120, 124, 203, 209, 236, 240 ; 
Mr. Swinburne's letters to, ii. 96, 
107 

Gatti, cavalier, physician, i. 182, 208 

Gem, Dr.,ii. 132, 158, 184, 209 

Genevieve, Ste., relics of, i. 21 n. 

Genlis, count de, ii. 37 

countess de, [de Sillery,] ii. 

33, 36, 43, 56, 297 

Gennaro, Monte, or Lucretilis, i. 223 

Genoa, noble families of, i. 181 ; ap- 
proach to, 261 ; port of, 262 ; 
palaces of the nobles, 262 ; fortifi- 
cations of, 263 ; expulsion of the 
Austrians from, 264 ; vicinity of, 
265 

Gensano, Neapolitan,!. 138 

Geological observations, i. 59 

George III., petitions by the House 
of Commons to, i. 398 ; wounded 
by Margaret Nicholson, ii. 4 ; his 
malady, 72 ; regency and ministry, 
73 ; his recovery, 75 ; the queen's 
drawing-room, 75 ; again insane, 
303, 305 ; his partial recovery, 
317 

IV., anecdotes of, when prince 

of Wales and regent, i. 345 n., 385, 
390, 396, 399 ; ii. 72, 77, 305 

Germany, journeys of Mr. Henry 
Swinburne through, i. 330 — 373 ; 
electors and states of, 368 ; the 
golden bull of Charles IV., 370 n. ; 
war with the French Republic, ii. 
133—236 

Ghent, arrival of Joseph II. at, i. 
379 ; his discourse with Mr. Swin- 
burne, at Ostend, on the peace, 
378 

Giannone, history of Italy, by, i. 180 

Gibraltar, visit to, i. 83, 88 ; the gar- 
rison, 88 

Girgenti, in Sicily, i. 192 

Gluck, his opera of Orphee, i. 16 ; his 
style of music, 16, 362 

Goitres, i. 275, 329 

Gontaut, M. and madame, ii. 249, 
&c. 

Gordon, lord George, ii. 3 

Gower, George Granville earl, am- 
bassador at Paris, ii. 158 

Grammont, duchess de, ii. 26, 33, 46 

Grande Croix, la, plain near, remark- 
able for botanical productions, i. 
274 

Grant, the abbe, at Rome, i. 209, 
212, 318 ; his account of the rebel- 
lion in Scotland, 210 



INDEX. 



387 



Grantham, lord, i 100,113 

Grapes of Xaples, i. l-i"2 

Greek church, at Rome, i. "219 

Gregoire, abbe, ii. 87 

Grenada, city of, i. 75 ; palace of the 
Alhambra described, i. 66, 76 ; 
the generaliffe or Moorish king's 
palace, at, 68 ; the river Xenil, 
near, 69, 75 ; the Sierra Nevada, 
75 

Grenville, William baron, ii. 227, 
281, 291 

Grimaldi, marquis do, of Naples, i. 
100,113 

duke, of Rome, i. 237 

Guarini, at the court of Naples, i. 
137. 

Guido, paintings by, i. 232 

Guienne, province of, i. 46 

Guillotine, the, ii. 118n., 206, 207, 
215 

Guise, Francis duke de, shot by Pol- 
trot, i. 28 

Henry of Lorraine, duke de, 

murder of, i. 33 

Louis, cardinal de, assassi- 
nated in prison, i. 34 

Guver, the, mountain torrent, i. 
277 

Hadrian, the emperor, villa of,i. 216 ; 

supposed bust of, 230 
Hall, Mr., his six months at Paris, i. 

22 
Hamilton, sir William, ambassador 

to Ferdinand IV., at Naples, i. 

1 82, 205 ; ii. 292 ; his fondness lor 

play, ii. 294 
Emma ladj', her arrival at 

Naples, i. 182, 204, 227 ; ii. 292 : 

Lord Nelson's letters to, 31 1, 313 ; 

letter from the queen of Naples to, 

295 

Mrs., sister-in-law of Sir 



William Hamilton, i. 390 
Hanau, mansion of the prince of 

Hesse Cassel, near the town of, 

i. 369 
Hanoverian troops, the, i. 88 
Harcourt, duke d', governor of the 

Dauphin, ii. 1 7 
Hastings, marquis of, when earl of 

Moira, ii. 302 
Hautefort, M. d", ii. 183, 196 
Havre, duke d', ii. 27 
Helvetius, posthumous book of, i. 13, 

337 
Henry IV. of France, ii. 170 
Hesse Cassel, landgrave of, i. 369, 

370 n. 
Heche, general, ii. 198 



Horace, his villa described, i. 222, 

224 ; MSS. of, 238 
Houdetot, countess d', ii. 213 
Howard, Mr., the philanthropist,!. 218 
Hungary, state of religion in, i. 343 
Hunting of wild boars, shooting, and 

field sports : of Italy, i. 140, 176, 

205 ; by the roj^al family in France, 

ii. 8, 10,14. 18 

Infantado, duke del, i. 103 
Innocent X., cardinal Pamfili, i. 212 ; 

his sister-in-law. Donna Olympia 

Maidalchina, 218 
Inscriptions, ancient, i. 59, 143 
Ionic order, volute of the, i. 225 
Irish society, i. 218, 219 
Iron Mask, the mysterious prisoner 

named the, i. 173, 174 n. ; ii. 61 
Ischia, island of, i. 155; its climate 

and odoriferous shrubs, 155 
Isnard, depute, ii. 195, 201 
Italy, republics and affairs of, during 

the French Revolution, ii. 263, 

307. See Bonaparte 
Ivemois, Sir Francis d', ii. 32 

Jacci, prince de, at Naples, i. 125 

James II., his court at St. Germain, 
ii. 34 

Janni, prince de, his villa of Resina, 
i. 148 

Jansenists, the, i. 26 

Jesuits of Naples, &c., i. 169; sup- 
pression of the, 229 

Jews of Turin, i. 272 ; of Frankfoit, 
370 

Joan of Arc, statue of, by Marie 
duchess of Wurtemberg, i. 5 n. ; 
statue of, at Orleans, 25 

Joseph II., the emperor, account of, 
i. 339, 347, 350 354, 357, 358, 363, 
382; his journey through Flanders, 
and anecdotes of, 378 — 381 ; peace 
of Campo Formio, ii. 236 

Kaunitz, prince, interesting details 
relative to the Imperial prime mi- 
nister, i. 333, 334, 336, 338, 360 

Keelder, lord Percy's castle at, i. 
288 

Keith, sir Robert, at Vienna, i. 332, 
334, 342 

Kenmure, lady, i. 41 

Keralio, mademoiselle, her transla- 
tion of Mr. Swinburne's travels, 
ii. 238 

Kingston, duchess of, i. 218, 372 

Knight, lady, and miss, i. 220 

Knox, general, lost at sea, ii. 299, 

308, 319 

c c 2 



388 



INDEX 



Konigsegge, elector of Cologne, i 
371, 37-2 

Laborde, M., at Rome, i. 225 
M., garde du tresor, ii. 15 ; 

his house at Ormesson, 21 ; his 

death, 168, 207 

■madamede,ii.l32,133,136, 



177,207 



les 



M., of Choisy, ii. 31, 



La Cava, anecdote of Charles V. at, 
i. 172 

Lacelle, college of, ii. 30 

La Croix, Charles, his refusal of lord 
Malmesbury's proposals of peace, 
ii. 1-27, 178 

La Fayette. — See Fayette 

La Luzerne, French minister at the 
court «f St. James, ii. 75, 79 

Lally ToUendal, count de, ii. 85 

La Mancha, plains of, i. 90 

Lamarck, madame de, ii. 35 

Lamballe, princess de, ii. 8, 10, 42 

Lambesc, prince de, ii. 78 

Lamoignon, M. de, ii. 56 

Landes, the, or heaths of Guienne, i. 
45 

Langlois, Mr. Benjamin, i. 382 

Lansberg, Matthieu, his almanac, ii. 
23 

Laudohn, marshal, i. 346 

Lauzun, duke de, ii. 46 

Lava, volcanic, i. 127, 138, 159, 197 

Lavoro, Terra di, i. 313 

Lazzaroni, of Naples, i. 162, 178 

Le iNIenil, Mr. Swinburne's house at, 
ii. 6, 29 

Lentini, lake and trout of, i. 194 

Leon, don Ferdinando di, 178 

Leopold, grand-duke, i. 361 

Le IMoine, M.,ii. 125, 126, 148, 165, 
237 

Liancourt, duke de, ii. 46 

Licenza, vale of, i. 223 

Liege, city of, i. 374 

Lintz, on the Danube, i. 366 

Locust tree, described, i. 73 

Loire, river, at Blois, i. 32, 35, 302, 
303 ; at Chaumont, 38 ; excur- 
sion to the banks of the, ii. 269 

Loiret, banks of the river, i. 27 ; 
Bridge of Olivet, where de Guise 
was shot byPoltrot,28 

Lomenie, M. de, cardinal archbishop, 
ii. 51 

London, Mr. Swinburne's residence 
in, i. 384 ; ii. 292, &c. 

Long, Mr., captain of a French pri- 
vateer, his case, ii. 272 

Lorenzi, chevalier, anedotes of, i. 255, 
256 



Loretto, the casa santa of, i. 310; 
pilgrims to, 310; the treasury, 
310 ; plundered by the French, ii. 
212 

Louis XIIL, ii. 61, 62 

XIV., i. 174 n,; ii.45 n., 62 

XV., his court at Versailles de- 
scribed, i. 9, 1 2, 20, 302 ; his levee 
described, 10 ; his daughters, 12, 
18, 21; anecdotes of, 12 n. ; ill 
of the small-pox, 15 ; his death, 
17 — 20 ; his lying in state, and 
obsequies, 21 ; affair of Damien, 
ii. 4 ; allusions to, 23, 249 

XVI., when Dauphin, his figure 

and character, i. 10 ; he re-esta- 
blishes the parliaments, 47, ii. 7 ; 
his court described, ii. 8, 13, 39, 
42, 53, 59, 66 ; the corps diplo- 
matique, 11 ; the king's habits 
and character, 13 ; the young 
duke de Normandie, ii. 16, 57, 81 ; 
Louis banishes the parliament of 
Paris to Tro3'es, 25, 53 ; agitations 
on account of new taxes imposed 
by, 23 — 26 ; his political difficul- 
ties, 81, 82, 84 ; his death, 141, 188, 
193 

XVIIL,descriptionof the count 

de Provence, i. 10 ; ii. 12 ; design 
of proclaiming him by Polj^, abbe 
Brotier and others, i. 201, 202, 
203 n. 

Don, infant of Spain, i. 101, 

102 

Louise, madame, Carmelite nun, 
[daughter of Louis XV.) i. 18 ; ii. 
39 

Louvre, gallery of paintings of the, 
ii. 150 

Lubomirska, princess, ii. 27, 28 

Lucan, earl and countess of, i. 218, 
220 ; the ladies Bingham, 220 

Lucca, city and republic of, i. 258 ; 
society and manners at, 259 ; Cos- 
tume regulated by sumptuary laws, 
260 ; present condition of the 
duchy of, 260, n. 

Lucciano, duke of, i. 218 

duchess of, i. 135, 178, 218 

Lucrine lake, the, i. 139 

Luke, St., i. 231, 322 

Luynes, duke de, ii. 50 

Lv-nch, Isidore, ii. 152, 154 

Lyons, city of, i. 279 ; Place Louis le 
Grand and its statue, 279 ; silk ma- 
nufactures, 279 ; hospital of la Cha- 
rite, 280 ; the walls and ramparts, 
279, 280 ; convents, and antiqui- 
ties, 280 ; martyrdom of St. Ire- 
nteus at, 281 ; aqueduct, and an- 
cient city Ltiffdunum, 282 



INDEX. 



389 



Macartney, earl, his embassy to 
China, ii. 110 

IMacauley, Mrs.,i. 357 

M'Kenzie, Mr., his equatorial, ii. 69 

]Madelona, duke of, at Naples, i. 128 

Madonna di pie di Grotta, at Naples, 
i. 167 ; Madonna di Fiorentini, 
179 ; of Loretto, 311 ; Madonna 
della Guardia, 822 ; paintings of 
the : by Guido, i. 232, 30.5, 311 

Madrid, city of, i. 100 ; society at, 
102 ; palace of Buonretiro, 103 

Maintenon, Madame de, ii. 25 

Maitre, M, le, sent to the Bastille for 
an extraordinary prophecy relative 
to Louis XVI.,' ii. 60, 143 

Malaga, town of, i. 65, 78; bay of, 
78 

Malaria, in Sicily, i. 195 •, of Rome, 
226 

Malines, to^vn of, described, i. 377 ; 
high steeple of the cathedral at, 377 

Malmesbury, lord, negociationsof, ii. 
114, 125,' 127, 147, 153, 157, 169, 
204, 260 ; ordered to quit France, 
175, 252 

Mandela, fhejmgus, of Horace, i. 223 

Mann, sir Horace, i. 253, 254 

Manna of Italy, i. 313 

Mantes, town of, i. 7 

Marboeuf, madame de, ii. 216 

Marforio, statue of, i. 211 

Marie- Antoinette, the dauphiness, 
her charming manners, i. 11, 12, 
35] ; ii. 10, 13, 16, 39, 48, 78, 89. 
91 ; her death, 141,246 

Marie Louise, queen of Charles IV. 
of Spain, i. 100 

Maria Theresa, the empress, her 
court, personal description and 
anecdotes of, i. 229, 341, 347, 350, 
364; her charity, 352 

Marigni, marquis de, i. 30 

Marsais, du, anecdote of the gram- 
marian, i. 255 n. 

Marseilles, visit to, i. 119 

Mary, queen of Scots, picture of, i. 
377 

Mass, high, celebration of, by Pius 
VI., i. 208 

Massa, woods and convents of, i. 150 

Matignon, madame de, ii. 1 1 

Mattel, duke, i. 232 

Maulde, M. de, and family, ii. 233, 
239, 263, 265, &c. 

Maurata,city near Loretto, i. 311 

Maury, abbe, ii. 57 

Maynard, lord and lady, i. 204, 206, 
237 

Mazarin, duchess de, i. 13 



Meade, Mr., ii. 148, 252 

Medals, cabinet of, i. 120, 130, 185, 
220, 237, 254, 323, 360 

Medina Ccjeli, duke of, i. 94 

Melons of Naples, i. 156 ; water 
melons, 160 

Menars, chateau of the marquis de 
Marigni, i. 30 

Mengs, paintings by, i. 216 

Mentelli, author of ' Cosmogrjiphie 
elementaire,' i. 376 ; ii. 164 

Mercy, count, ambassador at Ver- 
sailles, ii. 31 

Messina, city of, i. 1 19 ; port of, 1 99 ; 
the Faro, 200 

Metastasio, personal description of, 
i. 346 

Merlin de Douay, ii. 179, 204 

Meulan, chateau of the Bignon 
family in I' Isle Belle, near, i. 7 

Mirabeau, count de, i. 82 

Mirandola, la, deserted appearance 
of, i. 323 ; castle of, 323 

Mirepoix, mare'chal de, ii. 26 

Modena, city and cathedral of, i. 
307 ; hotel or albergo of, 322 ; 
the arsenal, 322 

Molinists, the, i. 26 

Molino, ponte, the Venetian frontier 
at, i. 324 

Monaco, prince of, ii. 75 

Monasteries, abbeys, and convents; 
at Orleans, i. 26 ; at Blois, 36 ; of 
La Consonne, 45 ; of St. Ildefonso 
near Seville, 93 ; of Capri, Massa, 
and Naples, 1 50, 168, 176 ; of Gir- 
genti, 192; of Catania, 198; of 
San Cosimato, 223 ; of Spoleto, 
247 ; of Assisi, 249 ; of la Grande 
Chartreuse, 276 ; of Lyons, 280 ; 
Camaldolin convent of Calemberg 
near Vienna, 353 ; Benedictine 
abbey at IMolck, 365 ; abbey of 
Kloster Neuberg, 354 ; abbey of 
St. Emerand, 368 

Monmouth, duke of, said to be the 
Iron Mask, i. 173 

Monnoie, M. de la, ii. 58 

Montagu, mont de, ii. 243 

Montague, Mrs., her essay on Shaks- 
peare, i. 392 

JMontefiascone, village of, i. 317 

Monteleone, town and vicinity of, i. 
200 ; duke of, at Naples, i. 148 

Monterolendo, duchess of, i. 131 

Montespan, madame de, ii. 45 

Montesquieu Fezenac, marquis de, 
his chateau of Waupertzs, ii. 31 

Montesson, countess de, ii. 26, 36, 
247 n. 



390 



INDEX. 



Montmelian, wine of, i. 276 
Montmoiencj', baron de, his marriage 

with Mile, de Matignon, ii. 41, 

59 
M ontpellier, botanical studies of Mr. 

H. Swinburne at, i. 120 
Montreuil,M. de la Verriere, ii. 275 
Montserrat, rocks and hermitages of, 

i. 71,72 
Monuments and tombs: of cardinal 

d'Amboise. i. 4 •, of John duke of 

Bedford at Eouen, 5 ; of Richard 

CoEur de Lion, 5 ; of the marechal 

de Saxe, 7 ; of Joan of Arc, 25 
Moore, lieut.-general Sir .Tohn, ii. 

.316 
Moors, of the kingdom of Grenada, i. 

C7; the Moorish kings,76; mosques 

built by, 94 
More, sir Thomas, his Utopia, ii. 

196 
Morellet, abbe, ii. 177, 221 
Morena, Sierra, i. 97 
Morillo, celebrated Spanish painter, 

i. 105 
Moulins, town of, and river Allier, i. 

303 
Mounces on the moors, residence of 

the Swinburne family, i. 288 ; ii. 

96 
Mozzi, cavalier, i. 255 
Mulberry trees, i. 266, 303 
Mules, of Spain, i. 83 
Muleteers of Sicily, i. 190 
Murcia, plains of, i. 74 
;Murviedro, the ancient Saguntum, i. 

73 
Museums, antiquarian collections, 
cabinets of medals and natural his- 
tory, i. 120, 130, 185, 198, 220. 
237, 254, 360. 400 ; ii. 7 
Music, Italian, i. 159, 164, 215, 231 ; 
ii. 294 ; German, i. 362, 363 

Naples, city and court of, i. 124, 128, 
130, 133, 152, 204; revisited by 
Mr. Swinburne, 312 ; Ferdinand 
IV., i. 124, &c. ; ii. 294, &c. See 
Ferdinand. Caroline, queen of, 
i. 124, 131,135,145, 153, 158,160, 
206, 227 ; ii. 294 ; her favourites, 
i. 137, 145; palace at Caserta, i. 
124, 140; opera at, 125, 159; castle 
of St. Elmo, 125; the Neapolitan 
nobility, 126, 181 ; Spanish nobles 
at, 161 ; the Papal families of, enu- 
meiatcd, 181 ; the Seggias de- 
scribed, 181 ; knights of St. Janu- 
arius, 181 ; executions of nobles, 
rejuiblicans and other?, at, ii. 293. 
environs visited and described, 



i. 127, 129, 139, 143 ; grand caval- 
cade at, 203 ; masquerades, balls, 
races, and festive scenes at, 131, 
133, 156, 182, 202, 204,207 ; man- 
ners and customs at, 153, 156, 162, 
165, 179; characterof the popula- 
tion of, 138 ; their mode of living, 
175; this city a delightful resi- 
dence, 145 ; English society at, 
124, 139, 145, 152, 204 ; Neapoli- 
tan army, 157; ecclesiastical affairs 
of, 163, 180; religious ceremony, 
the Madonna procession, i. 167 

Nami, ancient bridge over the Nar 
at, i. 244 

Navas de Tolosa, i. dQ. 

Necker, INl., his first exile by Louis 
XV^L, ii. 20 ; again in power on 
the dismissal of de Brienne, 80 ; 
his popularity, 81 ; banished, 83 ; 
his recall, 86 ; history of the revo- 
lution, by, 208, 220 

Negro, river, in Naples, i. 202 

Nelson, lord, his letters to Lady 
Hamilton on the victorj- of Copen- 
hagen, ii. 311, 313 ; his interview 
with the crown prince described, 
313; anecdotes of, 317 

Nemours, visit to the town of, ii. 282 

Neustadt and Neunkirchen, i. 331 

Nevers, to\ni of, i. 3o2 

Newbv, Lord Grantham's mansion, 
i. 291 

Nicastro, hills, forest, and town of, 
i. 201 

Nightingales, i. 245 

Nisida, island of, i. 142 

Nismes, town of, i. 120 ; antiquities 
of, and in its vicinity, 120, 121 

Noailles, marshal de, ii. 15 

comte de, i. 47, 49 

duchess de, i. 229 

Charles de, ii 86 

Nobles, Neapolitan, i. 126, 161, 181 ; 

Reman, 181> 221, 235; French 

emigres and, ii. 279, 305 
Nola, vale of, i. 141 
Normandie, duke de, the dauphin, 

son of Louis XVI., ii. 16, 57 ; his 

death, 81 
Normandy, tour in, i. 3 
Notables, assembly of the, ii. 27 
Novi, town of, near Genoa, i. 266 
Nuns, description of the convents at 

Naples, i. 126, 131, 168 
Nuremberg, to^vn of, i. 368 

Oak, the, i. 57, 201 ; ii. 243 

acorns of the evergreen, escu- 
lent, i. 73 

Obelisks, celebrated, i. 121 



INDEX. 



391 



Oginsky, count, i. 389 

O'Hara, general, ii. 153 

Olivarez, count-duke d', anecdote of, 
i. 359 

Opera, the, at Paris, i. 16, 301 ; ii. 
32 ; at Fontainebleau, ii. 9 ; at 
Cadiz, i. 82 ; at Naples, i. 125 ; at 
Rome, i. 230 

Orange, circus, and ancient Roman 
arch at, i. 122 

Orange, groves: of Seville, i. 93 ; of 
Palermo, 184, 186 ; of Mola and 
Castiglione, 246 

O'Reilly, general count, i. 89, 90 ; 
his character and political talents, 
91 ; his expedition against Algiers, 
92 

Orford, lady, at Naples, i. 128, 129, 
141 ; her villa, at Fiesole, 254 

Orleans, Gaston d', i. 33 

duke d', (Egalite) i. 21 ; 

kills a deer in the Place Louis 
XV., ii. 18 -, is exiled, 32, 48 ; de- 
tails respecting this prince, 35, 82, 
87 ; ii. 297 

road from Paris to, i. 24 ; 



description of the city of, 25 ; ca- 
thedral of, 25 ; the chateaux of the 
environs, 27, 29 
Ormond, marquis of, his allusions to 

his son, ii. 301 
Orsini family, the, i. 181, 223, 224 
Osmond, madame d', at Naples, ii. 
66, 295, 296 

count d', ii. 46, 319 

marquise d', i. 115 ^ ii. 18, 

45, 319 

Osnaburgh, bishop of, i. 373 
Ostend, sands and roadstead of, dan- 
gerous, i. 296, 378 
Ottoboni, don IMarco, i. 131 
Oxen, white, of Italy, i. 142 

Padilla, Juan de, insurrection of, i. 
110 

Paesiello, Italian composer, i. 159 ; ii. 
294 

Palermo, city and harbour of, i. 183, 
184 ; cathedral of, 185 ; the arch- 
bishop of, 1 85 ; orange groves of, 
184 

Palo, grotto and crystallized spars of, 
i. 312 ; paper-mills of, 312 

Pare aux Cerfs, at Versailles, i. 20 ; 
ii. 60, 249 

Paris, Mr. Henry Swinburne's resi- 
dence at, i. 7, 17, 301 ; he com- 
plains of his hotel at, 22 ; theatri- 
cal anecdotes of, i. 146, n. 301 ; ii. 
6, 58, 67, 128, 160, 206 ; salon of 
paintings of, ii. 26 ; excursions to 



the environs of, 8, 15, 18, 29, 49, 
226, 241, 243. 251, 258; parlia- 
ment of, 23—27, 53, 56 ; society at, 
35—43, 57, 123, 129, 143, 157, 
181, 217. 247, n. 248, 258 ; agita- 
tions which preceded the revolu- 
tion, 53, 54 ; festivities, balls, and 
fetes at, 59, 188, 215, 216 ; the 
Bastille taken, 83 ; the assemblee 
nationale, and progress of the 
French revolution, 84, 87, 89; 
reign of the Directory at, 121 , 144, 
155, 175, 193, 207, 225, 253, 261. 
286 ; negociations for peace with 
England frustrated, 127, &c., 175 ; 
changes at, consequent on the re- 
volution, 131, 145, 165 ; costume 
at, 155, 159, 173, 181 ; the Sans 
Culottes, 170, 235; the Palais 
Royal, 171 ; the Jardin desTuile- 
ries, 183 

Parma, dukes of, i. 305 ; palace and 
city of, 306 

Parsons, ]\]rs.,i. 13,204 

Pasquin, i. 211,212 

Paston Letters, the, ii. 317 

Patagonia, prince of, i. 186 

Paterson, captain, his travels in 
South Africa, i. 394 

Paul I., emperor of Russia, his violent 
death, ii. 314 

Payne, captain J., M.P., pun of, ii. 
70 

Pelham, lord, ii. 302, 325 

, Mr. Thomas,i. 140, 149,310 

Pellegrini, general, i. 354 

Pellegrino, monte, visited, i. 187 

Pennicolto, count, i. 154 

Percy, Dr., his Reliques of ancient 
poetry, i. 78 

Perignon, M., invitation from, ii. 1 95, 
201 

Perregaux, M., banker of Paris, ii. 
124, 177, 194,231, 258,285 

— mademoiselle, ii. 257, 287 

Perugino, Pietro, i. 250 

Perugia, celebrated paintings at, i. 
250 

Pesaro, beautiful environs of, i. 308 

Peter, St., his dungeon in the Pallian 
prisons, i. 222 

Philip II., king of Spain, i. 1 12 

IV., of Spain, i. 359 

v., of Spain, i. 93 

don, elder brother of Ferdi- 
nand IV. of Naples, i. 168, 169 

' don, of Parma, his death, i. 

305 ; his son, duke of Parma, 305 ; 

the duchess Maria Amelia, 305 
Pic du Midi, on the French side of 

the Pyrenees, i. 53 



392 



INDEX. 



Picton, lieut. -general Sir Thomas, ii. 

357 ; his trial for the Trinidad 

affair, 375 
Pie di Luco, lake of, i. 243, 244 ; its 

trout and other fisli, 243 
Piedmont and Savoy, tour in, i. 266 

—278 
Pigale, sculptor, his monument of 

marechal de Saxe, i. 7 ; his statue 

of Voltaire, 8 
Pignatelli, marquis, i. 1 78 
Pilgrims, Italian, i. 176 
Pinckney, Mr., American ambassa- 
dor at Paris, ii. 197 
Pine-apples, i. 148, 172 
Pines, spruce firs, and larch, Alpine 

forests of, i. 274, 330 
Pirratino, prince, i. 235 
Pisa, description of the city of, i. 256 ; 

cathedral of, 257 ; the Campo 

Santo, 258 ; the old republic of 

256 
Pisciarelli, the, hot springs near 

Naples, i. 143 
Piscina Mirabile, the, constructed by 

Agrippa, i. 139 
Pitt, right hon. William, i. 387 ; ii. 

3, 304 
Pius VI., court of, i. 208, 308, 314 ; 

sickness of the pope, 319 ; political 

affairs of his latter years, ii. 212, 

VII., pope, i. 212 n. 

Planting of forest timber, on, i. 57. 
PljTii, salmon fishery of the river, 

i. 291 
Po, river, i. 323 
Poetry, i. 68, 109, 290, 364 ; ii. 44, 

45n.,46, 50, 106, 134, 319 
Poitiers, city of, i. 44 
Diana of, duchess de Valen- 

tinois, i. 39 
Poix, princess de, ii. 49, 177, 211 
Poland, affairs of, i. 139, 154, 348, 

389 ; ii. 28 
Polignac, marquis de, ii. 11 

madame de, ii. 16, 17, 48 

Pollio Videus, his fish-ponds near 

Naples, i. 130 
Pompadour, madame de,i. 30 n., 229; 

ii 47,52 
Pompeii, visit to, 140, 312 ; paintings 

of the ancient Romans at, 312 ■, de- 
scription of, 312 
Pont de Beauvoisin, on the river 

Guyer, i. 278 
Pont de Gard, near Nismes, i. 122 
Porcelain manufacture, ii. 235 
Portalis, M., ii. 195,202 
Portici, excavations of, i. 141, 142; 



palace of, 159 ; horse-racing at, 

156 
Portugal, affairs of, i. 359 
Posilipo, grotto of, i. 129 ; the punta 

di, 142; Virgil's tomb at, 149; 

the lava road to, 159 
Potemkin, prince, ii. 47 
Poyntz, Mr., charge d'affaires, i. 267 
Pradelles, madame de, ii. 238 
Provence, residence in, i. 123 
Provence, count de, jMonsieur, ])er- 

sonal description of, i. 10 ; ii. 12 

countess de, i. 11 ; ii. 13 

Puzzuoli, and the environs of Naples, 

i. 139,167 
Pyrenees, the, approach from Bag- 

neresto, i. 53 

Quinault, music of, 301 
Quixote, Don, allusions to the work 
of Cervantes, i. 96, 104, 106 

Radicofani, fortress and village, i. 

320 ; extinct volcano at, 320 
Raf)hael, the Transfiguration by, i, 

232 ; paintings by, 248, 250, 31 1, 

322 
Ratisbon, city and cathedral of, i. 

367 
Reidesel, baron de, his ' Voyage to 

Sicily', i 187 
Reubel, member of the French Di- 
rectory, ii. 154, 155, 179, 203, 222 
Reveillere Lepaux, Henri la, French 

Director, ii. 189 
Rewithkj^, count, ii. 70 
Revniolds, sir Joshua, i 294, 295 
Rezzonico, prince, senator of Rome, 

i. 221 ; ii. 1 

cardinal, i. 221 

Rheims, citv of, i. 298 ; statues at, 

299; the "cathedral, 300; the St. 

Ampoule, 300 
Rhine, river, i. 371 
Rhone, river, i. 280 
Ricci, general of the Jesuits, i. 229 
Richelieu, cardinal, ii. 61, 63 — 65; 

his monument, 170 

duke de, i. 12 n. ; ii. 249 ; 

allusion to, by Louis XVI., ii. 14 

Rimini, tovm of, and the Adriatic, i. 

308 ; Malatesta, lord of, 308 
Riviera di Levante, near Genoa, i. 

261 
Roads, accidents in travelling along 

bad, i. 3, &c. 
Robespierre, guillotined, ii. 137, 142, 

212 ; epitaph for, 138 
Rocca, prince della. at NaplcsJ. 126, 

165 



INDF.X, 



393 



Roche Aymon, cardinal de la, con- 
fessor of Louis XV., i. 10, 18 
Rodney, lady, and her daughters, ii. 

•24-2, 279 
Roederer,M., ii. 213, 216 
Rohan, duke de, ii. 212, 213 
Romances, Spanish, i. 78 
Rome, the papal affiiirs and govern- 
ment of, i. 163, 164, 180; Mr. 
Swinburne's arrival at, 208 ; his 
second visit to, 312 ; high mass on 
Easter-day celebrated by Pius VI., 
208 ; church of St. Peter's, de- 
scribed, 209, 211 ; illumination of 
the dome of, 217; various eccle- 
siastical ceremonies descri))ed, 218; 
the great families of, 181, 221,235; 
antiquities, and ancient and modern 
edifices of, 211 — 213; English so- 
ciety at, 210,213; Frescati, 213 ; 
Aldobrandini villa, 213; excur- 
sions to the environs of, 214, 222, 
228, 229, 240 ; palace on Monte 
■ Cavallo, 215 ; the Coliseum, 215; 
Villa Albani, 216 ; Villa Pamfili, 
217; Castle of St. Angelo, 217; 
the Vatican, and its library, 220 ; 
Palatine hill, 224; the Circus Max- 
imus, 225 ; temple of Castor and 
Pollux, 226 ; the Irish Dominican 
monks, 231 ; the Palazzo Massimi, 
333 ; theatres, and the drama, at, 
230, 236 ; masquerade at, 236 ; 
parties and festivities at, 237 ; 
fountain of Egeria, 239 ; Mr. Swin- 
burne's return to, 314 ; afl^irs of, 
during the French revolution,ii.211 
Roquefort, castle of, in Savoy, i. 278 
Rose, the yellow, in Spain, i. 66 
Rossi, marquis, i. 218 
Rossi, first danseuse at Naples, i. 131, 

134 
Rouen, description of the city of, i. 
4 ; its cathedral, and monuments 
of princes therein, 5 ; Benedictine 
abbey of St. Ouen, 5 ; the arch- 
bishop's gothic palace at Gaillon, 
6 ; parliament of, ii. 26 
Rufo, prince, i. 181 ; ii. 224 
Rutland, duke of, ii. 3 
Sa,M. de, Portuguese minister at Na 

pies, i. 124 
Salerno, romantic scenery near, i. 321 
Salmour, madame de, i. 348 
Sambuca, marquis de, i. 1 32, 1 36, 1 47 
Sandwich, earl of, ii. 71 
San Georgio, convent of, i. 324 
Sangro, donna Teresina del, i. 178 
San Lorenzo, prince of, i. 128 
Sannazzaro, wTitings of, i. 173 ; his 
tomb, 149, 173 



San Severo, duke and ducliess ot, 
i. 136 

Santo Marco, madame, i. 165, 166, 
178, 206, 237 

Saone, river, its confluence with the 
Rhone, i. 280 

Sarno, rivei', in Naples, i. 141 

Savoy and Piedmont, mountain roads 
of, i. 273—278 ; costume of the 
peasantry, 274 ; industry of the 
Savoyards, 275 ; the French fron- 
tier, 277, 278 

Saxe, marshal de, monument of, i. 
7,41 

Saxe Hildburghausen, prince of, i. 340 

Schwenckt, baron von, i. 9, 14 

Schottwien, woods and mountain pass, 
near, i. 331 

Sciacca, in Sicily, the thermcB Selinim- 
tiiE,OT hot springs of, i. 191 

Scipios, tomb of the two, i. 72 

Seaton Delaval, festivities at, ii. 98 

Segesta, or JEgesta, in Sicily, i. 188 ; 
temple of, 191 

Segovia, cathedral of, i. 106 ; the al- 
cazar or palace, 106 ; aqueduct at, 
106 

Seguier, Antoine Louis de, his cabi- 
net of antiques and medals, i. 120 ; 
liis library, 120 

Segur, marshal de, ii. 1 1 

Seine, river, ii. 228, 263 

Selwyn, George, his prompt reply to 
the prince of Wales, i. 393 

Sennett, the Irish abbe, i. 219 

Senovert, M. de, his mission to Eng- 
land, ii. 180 

Sens, cathedral of, and its monu- 
ments, i. 284 

Severino, lady Anne, daughter of lord 
Derwentwater, i. 1 28 

Severino, San, lords of Ringone, i. 
181 

Seville, city of, i. 93 ; cathedral of, 
93 ; the alcazar or palace, 93, 95 ; 
orange trees of, 92 ; climate of, 92 ; 
Old Seville, 93 

Sewell, Mr., i. 386 

Sheridan, Right Hon. R. B., ii. 74, 
75, 112 

Sibaris, site of the ancient, i. 201 

Sicily, nobles and landholders of, i. 
126 ; viceroys of, 146 ; Mr. Henry 
Swinburne's tour in, 183 — 199 ; 
productions, and wheat of, 190 
192, 193 

Siddons, Mrs., i. 390, 391 n. ; ii. 
77 _ 

Sienna, site of the city of, i. 321 ; 
cathedral of, 321 ; the Chizi chapel, 
321 ; paintings of, 321 



394 



INDEX. 



Siglio, prince of, i. 181 
Simolin, Russian ambassador at Pa- 
ris, ii. 11,28 
Sinzendorff, chamberiain of Maria 

Theresa, anecdote, i. 345 
Skinner, alderman, i. 400 
Smith, sir William Sidney, a pri- 
soner in France, ii. 114; affair of 
his detention in Paris, 121, 125, 
135, 138, 145, 149, 153, 204, 225, 
265, 274, 276, 231 ; his escape 
from the prison of the Temple at 
Paris, 288, 289 ; letter of, 290 ; 
Lord Grenville's letter to, 291 
Smith, lady, i. 204 
Snakes of Italy, i. 143 
Sobieski, John, king of Poland, i. 

349 
Solkonski, prince, i.l38 
Soreze, college of, near Carcassonne, 

i. 51 
Sorrento, plain of, i. 312 
Spa, visit to, i. 373 
Spain, Mr. Henry Swinburne's jour- 
ney through, i. 65,70, 83; beauty 
of the Spanish women, i. 77, 96; 
their habits in society, 101 ; cli- 
mate of, i. 73, 81, 82 ; colonies of 
La Carolina, Carlotta and Louisi- 
ana, in the Sierra Morena, 96 ; 
grandees of, 94, 101 ; arts, science, 
and printing, in, 118 
Spas, and mineral waters : — of Bag- 
neres, i. 55 ; at Sciacca, in Sicily, 
191 ; Wilhelmstadt, 369. 
Spence, Mr., i. 152, 154 
Spencer, earl, ii. 168 
Spezzia, gulf of, description, i. 261, 

262 
Spinelli, cardinal, i. 230 
Spoleto, town and castle of, i. 246 ; 
the Porta Fuga, 247 ; aqueduct 
of, 247 ; convents and hermitages 
near, 247 
Ste. Croix, island of, ii. 337, 339, 

342 ; town of Christianstadt, 337 
St. Cyr, convent. See. of, ii. 256 
St. Domingo, expedition under Ge- 
neral Leclerc to, ii.343 
St. Fdix, his surmise of who was the 
Masque de Fer, i. 173, 174 n. ; ii. 
19o. 213 
St. Ildephonso, a convent of Hiero- 
nymites, i. 93 ; St. Ildephonso, 
glass manufactory at, i. 105 ; pa- 
lace of, 117 
St. Lambert, marquis de, ' Les Sai- 

sons' by, ii. 213 
St. Paternion, village of, i. 329 



St. Priest, count de, ii. 22 

St. Veit, in Carinthia, i. 330 

St. Sauveur, general de, ii. 241 

St. Tbomas, island of, restored to the 
Danes, ii.341 

Stael, baron de, Swedish minister at 
Paris, ii. 11 

Stael Kolstein, baronne de, ii. 52 

Stahremberg, prince, i. 374, 375 

Stanley, Mr., i. 140 

Statues, and sculpture, ancient, i. 
121, 216, 238 

Staunton, Sir George, Bart., I\I. P., 
ii. 110 

Stigliano, prince of, viceroy of Sicilj', 
i. 146, 186 

princess of, i. 145, 186 

Stormont, lord, ambassador to Louis 
XV., i. 8 ; his negociations, 379, 
380 

Stratford coffee-house, Oxford-street, 
company at the, ii. 108 

Strathmore, lord, ii. 101, 102 

Stunrt, Mr., e.iitor of the English 
Review, &c. ii. 1 

Styria, tour in, i. 330 

Sutton, Mr., inoculator, i. 19, 20 

Swinburne, Mr. Henry: his journey 
through Spain, i. 65, 82, 114, 
123, 287, 390 ; poetry by, i. 68 ; 
his tour in Sicily, i. 183—199; 
his drawings and illustrations for 
his Travels, i. 79, 120, 215, 
221 ; his account of his children, 
i. 105, 207, 209; ii. 109, 112, 147 ; 
his loss of a son at Rome, i. 226 ; 
his sister Anne, a nun of Montar- 
gis, ii. 1 13 ; his entertaining anec- 
dotes while residing in London, 
and in Lngland, i. 384 — 400; ii.l, 
69—78, 292, &lc. &c. ; Lis West 
India property, i. 387; his mis- 
sion to the Directory of France for 
the exchange of prisoners, ii. 114, 
134, 147, 164, 203 ; his success 
therein, 210, 214, 231, 265, 276 ; 
affair of Major Hull, 274— See Sir 
William S. Smith, 121, &c.; our 
author returns to England, from 
Paris, 286 ; death of liis son Mr. 
Henry S winburne, 309; tourthrough 
England, 321 ; his letters on Eng- 
lish political affairs 324, &c. &c. ; 
accepts the place of vendue-master 
in Trinidad, and sails for the West 
Indies, 326, &;c. ; his letters from 
the West Indies, 3oS — 379; his 
death, 377 n. 
, Mrs., accompanies Mr. 



INDEX. 



395 



Henry Swinburne to many of the 
foreign courts, i. 62, 63, '79. 127, 
144, 182, 209, 213, 227, 234, 254, 
314, 347, 362 ; ii. 18, 22, 56 ; her 
letters to Mr. Swinburne relative 
to their son Henry, and description 
of the Revolution, ii. 78, 91 ; her 
return to England, 91, 93 
Swinburne, Mr. Robert, ii. 323 

, Mr. Henry, ii. 309, &c. 

, Sir Edward, family of, 

i. 50 ; ii. 96 

-, Isabella lady, i. 30 n. ; ii. 



97 

Syracuse, population of ancient, i, 
193 n. ; description of the modern 
town, 195 ; of the ancient vestiges, 
196 ; the catacombs of, 197 

Tagus, river, i. 100, 113 

Talaru, madame de, ii. 146, 247, 
279 

Talleyrand, prince de, i. 337 ; ii. 82, 
195, 213 

Tallien, madame, ii. 139, 183 198 

Taormina, ancient theatre of, i. 189 

Tanucci, Bernard, minister of Ferdi- 
nand IV. of Naples, i, 135, 163, 
166 

Tarbes, city of, i. 52, 63, 114 

Terni, town and vale of, i. 241, 246 ; 
vineyards near, 241 ; Cascade of 
the Velino, near, 242, 244 

Tersan, abbe, ii. 123, 127, 201 

Testuccio, monte, view of Rome 
from, i. 221 

Theatres : allusions to the state of the 
drama in Spain, i. 82, 86; in Naples, 
i. 125, 131, 152 ; in Rome, i. 230, 
236; in Paris, i. 304 ; li. 6, 128, 
139, 160, 206 ; in Vienna, i. 356, 
362, 363 ; in London, i. 391, 397 ; 
at Fontainebleau, ii. 9 

Theatres, ruins of ancient, visited, i. 
121,198 

Thiers, M. de, ii. 67, 68 

Thrasimene lake, or Torricella, i, 
251 ; Hannibal's victory, 251 

Thun, madame de, daughter of prince 
Kaunitz, i 333 n., 361 

Tilnev, lord, at Naples, i. 124, 126, 
129, 206 

Titian, paintings by, i. 104, &c. 

Tivoli, and the temple of the Sibyl 
at, i. 214, 222, 248 ; Cascade of, 
214 

Tobacco : snuff and cigars, manufac- 
tories of, i. 93 

Tokay, and vineyards producing this 
wine, i. 343 

Toledo, Don Pedro di, former vice- 
roy of Naples, for Charles of Spain, 
i. 167 



Tongeres, baron de, his collection of 
birds, i. 120 

Torre del Greco, i. 127 

Torremuza, prince, i. 185 

Tortola, description of the island of, 
ii. 346, 352 

Tortosa, i. 72 

Toulouse, city of, i. 115 

count of, ii. 34 

Tours, city of, i. 43 

Toussaint Louverture, account of, ii. 
343 

Townshend, lord, ii. 77 

Tramontana, the wind, i. 129 

Trefusis, Miss, her verses on the 
loss of general Knox at sea, ii. 
319 

Trent, city of, i. 326 ; the palace at 
326 ; costume at, 326 

Trinidad, island of, ii. 326, 353, &c. 

Tropea, bishops see of, on the Gulf 
of St. Eufemia, i. 120 ; cliestuuts 
and manna of the vicinity of, 313 

Truguet, admiral Laurent, J. F., ii. 
124, 222, 264 

Tuile, Mr., i. 22 

Turin, king of Sardinia's court and 
army at, i. 267, 268 ; the queen, 
[Clotilde,] 268 ; the royal family 
described, 268 ; the palace and 
picture gallery, 269; society at, 
270 ; antiquities at, 270 ; citadel 
of, 271; description of the city, 
231 ; theatres, 271 ; second visit 
to this capital, 304 

Tuscany, beauty of the women, and 
costume in, i. 252 ; grand duke of, 
252 ; description of, 320 

Twiss, Mr. Richard, his travels in 
Spain, criticised, i. 70, 80 

Tyber, river, i.240, 250 

Tyne, head of the, i. 288 ; the river, 
'288 

Tyrconnel, duke of, [Talbot,] ii, 34 

— lady, i. 118 

Tyrol, the, toiir in, i. 326, 328 

UlsfieJd, madame d', i. 349 
L'nzmarkt, larch trees and firs near, 

i.330 
Urbino, duchy of, i. 216, 309 

Vacuna, temple of, i. 223 
Valence, countess de, ii. 183 
Valencia, Spanish province of, i.72 ; 

coast of, 72 ; city of, 73, 74 
Vaillant, M., his 'Travels,' ii. 127, 

191 
Valladolid, Scotch college in the uni- 
versity of, 106 
\'alliere, duchess de la, i. 174 n. ; 
account of this celebrated lady, ii. 
43, 44 n. 



396 



INDEX. 



Vatican, WSS. of the library in tlie, 
i. 2^0,238; museum, medals, and 
papvri of, 220 ; statues of the, 238 

Vaudreuil, iM. de, his gallery of 
paintings, ii. 32 

Vaupaliere, madame de la, ii. 39 

Vega, Lopez de la, i. 118 

Veiino, the, its junction with the 
river Nera, i. 242, 243 

Velvet manufactories of Genoa, i. 
261 

A^erde, rio, criticism on the name of 
this river, i. 78 

Vergennes, count de, ii, 10 ; his 
death, 17 

Vermont, abbe de, his advice to 
Marie Antoinette, ii. 39 

Verona, city of, i. 324 ; academy for 
poetry and music at, 325 

Versailles, court of, in the last days 
of Louis XV., i. 8 — 22 ; court pre- 
sentations pleasantly described, 10 
— 15 J the Pare aux Cert's, or 
I'Ermitage, at, 20 ; court of Lcuis 
XVL ii. 7 ; queen's ball at, 15 

Vesuvius, and its district, i. 127, 
141, 142, 143, 148, 314 

Vetturino, travelling by agreement 
with a, i. 236, 304, 3l5 

Viaticum, the, administered to Louis 
XV., i. 19 

Vico, like of, i. 316 

Vida, Latin poet,i. 173 

Vienna, approach to, i. 332 ; English 
society at, 332, 337 ; general so- 
ciety and festivities, 339, 354, 
362, 364 ; the Lausgarten, 333 ; 
the Hofi'garten on the Danube, 
333; the imperial court described, 
334, 339, 341, 347, 351 ; the em- 
press and her family, 341, 342, 
344,346,330,357,361. 5ee JMaria 
Theresaand Joseph XL; mansionsof 
the German nobles at Laxenburg, 
334 ; order of la Croix etoilee, 
363; the Prater, 339; the Graben, 
339 ; companies and trades, 339 ; 
Schbnbrunn palace, 343, 344 ; 
state of religion in Austria, Bra- 
bant, Hungar_v,and Bohemia, 343, 
338 n.; laws and government, 343; ! 
excursion to the Calemberg moun- 
tain, and environs of the city, 333 ; 
the city described, 335 ; cathedral 
of St. Stephen's, 355 ; thesuburbs, 
337; arsenal, 335; the opera, and 
German music, 362; the theatres 
at, 356, 363 

Vienne, river, near Tours, i.43 

Villa Hermosa, Spanish ambassador 
at Turin, i. 269 



Vilvorde, prison of, formerly a house 

of industry, i. 377 
Vincennes, park of, ii. 29 
Vineyards in France, i. 56, 282 ; of 

Italy, 241 ; of Germany, 343,368 
Virgil, admiration in Italy for, i. 

173 ; his tomb at Posilipo, 149 
Viso, monte, i. 267 
Viterbo, mountain of, i. 316; town 

of, 316 
Vitruvius, i. 325 
Vittoria, built on a hill, i. 107 
Viventor, physician of Naples, i. 

160 
Volcanic district, near the Adriatic 

sea, i. 311; near Ronciglione, 315 
Volcanos : remarks on voldimic dis- 
tricts, Vesuvius, i. Vi? ; ^-Etna, i. 

192 
Voltaire, statue of, by Pigale, i. 8 ; 

his Siecle de Louis XIV., 174 n.; 

his works criticised, ii. 279 

Wall, general, former Spanish minis- 
ter, i. 69 ; his residence at Gre- 
nada, 77 

Mr,, death of, in a duel, ii. 37 

Wertsee, lake, i. 329 

West India Islands, restoration of 
Ste. Croix, St. Thomas, 6cc., to the 
Danes, ii. 327 n., 336, 341 ; Mr. 
Swinburne's West India property, 
i. 387 

White's club, ii. 75 

Wight, Isle of, visit to the, ii, 110 

Wilkes, Mr. John, anecdotes of, i. 
387,397,399 ; ii. 1, 71, 73 

William IV., when duke of Clarence, 
ii.77 

W'lllis, Dr., ii.74, 303 

Wines : Neapolitan, i. 139 ; La- 
crymaChristi, 173; of Sicily, I9l; 
of Montmeliaii, 276 ; Burgundy, 
382 ; of Montepulciano, 321 ; To- 
kay, 343 

Woburn abbev, i. 383 

Woronz' w, count, ii. 315 

\\'raxMll, sir W illiam, ii. 3 

Wurtzburg, palace of the prince - 
bishop of, i. o'lS ; city of, 368; 
forest near, 369 

Yarmouth, lady, anecdote of, i. 395 
Yermoloff", celebrated general, ii. 47 
York, cardinal, amusing account of 

this descendant of the Stuarts, i. 

213,214 

Frederic duke of, i. 373 ; ii. 

77 

Young, Dr. Edward, his ' Night 
Thoughts/ ii. 66 



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